कैलेंडर व पंचांग में भिन्नता क्यों

kailendar v panchang men bhinnata kyon  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 882 |  
adhunik (gregoriyan) kailendar men prati char varsh pashchat ek lip varsh hota hai, 100 varsh pashchat lip varsh nahin hota evan 400 varsh pashchat punah lip varsh hota hai. is prakar varsh man 365.2425 dinon ka hota hai jo ki sayan varsh man 365.2422 ke bahut karib hai aur keval 3000 varshon bad 1 din ka antar ata hai. kailendar ki tulna men panchang men surya, chandra adi ke rashi pravesh v tithi, yog, karan adi ki ganna di jati hai. rashi arthat taron ke pariperakshya men jab ham grahon ko dekhte hain, to vah uski nirayan sthiti hoti hai. nirayan varsh man 365.2563 dinon ka hota hai jo ki surya ke ek rashi men pravesh se agle varsh usi rashi men pravesh ka kal hai. yah sayan varsh se .0142 din bara hai. is prakar 100 varshon men 1.42 dinon ka antar a jata hai. panchang prati 100 varshon se kailendar se lagabhag derh din age khisak jata hai. is karan makar sankranti v lohri adi men antar a jata hai aur hindu parva, jo tithi ke anusar manae jate hain, dhire-dhire age khiskte jate hain. sayan v niyaran ganna kya hoti hai aur donon men kya antar hai? prithvi apni dhuri par surya ki parikrama krantivritt par lagati hai. lekin yah lagabhag 23.40 jhuki rahti hai. prithvi ke is jhukav ke karan hi garmi v sardi parti hanai. jhukav ke karan prithvi ka jo bhag surya ke sidhe samne a jata hai vahan garmi ho jati hai. kyonki rituen, ayan v suryoday adi prithvi ke jhukav ke karan hote hain n ki prithvi ki parikrama ke karan, atah kailendar sayan banaya jata hai. prithvi ka bhumadhya vritt krantivritt ke sath ek rekha par katta hai, jiska ek bindu vasant vishuv v dusra sharad vishuv kahlata hai. yah rekha prithvi ke aksh dolan ;chanjanjapavadaddh ke karan 50.3 prativarsh ki gati se pashchim ki or khiskti jati hai. prithvi ke purn 3600 chalne ko nirayan aur uske punah usi jhukav men ane ko sayan varsh kahte hain. is karan sharad vishuv par prithvi ko punah ane men 3600 se lagabhag 50’’ kam chalna parta hai. yah antar hi aynansh kahlata hai. sayan kailendar v nirayan panchang 23 march 285 ko ek the. taduprant aj tak lagabhag 24 dinon ka antar a gaya hai. atah chaitra mas, jo farvri v march men ata tha, ab march v aprail men parta hai. jyeshth mas mai ki bajay jun men parta hai aur yahi karan hai ki atyadhik garmi, jo jyeshth mas men parti thi, ab vaishakh men hi par jati hai. isi prakar varsha ritu bhi, jo shravan v bhadrapad men parti thin, ab asharh v shravan men ati hai. rituen surya ke karan banti hain atah sayan kailendar ke anusar hi satyapit hoti hain. nirayan panchang, rashyanusar hone ke karan, rituon ke lie purn thiek nahin baithta hai. koi bhi ganna, jo surya par adharit hoti hai, gregoriyan kailendar par satya baithti hai v panchang men khiskti jati hai. isi prakar hai suryoday v ayan gol adi. kailendar ke anusar 23 disanbar ko sabse chota din hota hai v isi din surya uÿarayan ho jata hai. lekin panchang tithi ya pravishte ke anusar surya makar rashi men nahin hota. kabhi (varsh 285 men) lohri ya makar sankranti sabse chota din hota tha lekin aj nahin hota. kya hamen kailendar nirayan kar dena chahie? ya kya panchang sayan kar dena chahie? uttar ek hi hai-nahin. donon apne sthan par thik hain. kailendar am janta ke lie bana hai, uska sayan hona hi thik hai. is karan rituen v suryoday adi tarikh ke anusar ek bane rahte hain. panchang jyotirvidon ke lie hai, usse grahon ki sthiti jani jati hai v ganna ki jati hai. grahon ki sthiti rashyanusar hi jani jati hai, atah is ganna ka nirayan hona svabhavik hai. ise sayan nahin kar sakte. isi karan sabhi panchang nirayan hi hote hain. grahon ki ganna ke lie surya ko adhar lekar fir aynansh ghatakar grah spasht karna sulabh hai. atah ganna ke lie pratham sayan ganna kar aynansh ghatakar nirayan ganna kar li jati hai. grah spasht ki sayan sarniyan milti hain. lekin iska tatparya yah kadapi nahin hai ki grah sayan gannanusar rashi men chal rahe hain. sabhi grah akash mandal men (taron ke pariprekshya men) nirayan gati ke anusar hi chalte hain aur jyotish, jo ki rashiyon, nakshatron par adharit hai, purnataya nirayan hi hai. atah jo gannaen ki ja rahi hain, ve purn satya hain, unhen galat manakar ferabadal karne se keval bhramak sthitiyan hi paida hoti hain. yadi kailendar v panchang men matbhed hai, to vah bhi satya hai. panchangon ke ekikaran men ek avashyakta hai - grah spasht siddhant ko ek manne ki. kuch panchang purva prakashit surya siddhant ya anya siddhanton se hi ganna karte hain, jabki aj ke yug men, jab manav upagrah dvara grahon par pahunch gaya hai, to adhunik ganna ko galat manna keval rurhivadita hai. yadi jyotish ka falit in gannaon se sahi ata nahin pratit hota hai, to hamen falit ke siddhant badlne chahie n ki ganit ko. falit ganit ka adhar nahin ho sakta, ganit ke adhar par hi falit ke sutra hone chahie. sabhi panchangon ko antarrashtriya manak prapt grah spasht ko sahi manakar kampyutar dvara ganna karni chahie, taki panchangon men antar samapt ho aur am manushya bhramit n ho. aynansh men matbhed bhi grah spasht ko ek nahin hone dete. jab ham sayan aur nirayan ke bhed men chuk kar jate hain aur vishvas sahit jatak ki lagn ya rashi nahin bata sakte, to aynansh men matbhed rakhne se kya labh. kuch aynansh keval nam ke karan chal rahe hain. antar itne kam hain ki jyotish ke dvara iska satyapan karna bilkul mumkin nahin hai. atah matbhed ko tyagakar ganna ke lie chitrapakshiya arthat lahri aynansh hi apnana chahie. falit kathan ke apne-apne sutra banae ja sakte hain v uske lie kuch bhi jora ya ghataya ja sakta hai. panchang banane men dusri dikkat hai parvon ko lekar ekamat n hone ki. tithi nirnay men suryoday ki bhumika aham hai. sthan ke anusar suryoday badal jata hai. yadi suryoday ke aspas tithi badal rahi ho, to sthan ke anusar tithi men parivartan a jata hai aur panchang men bhi. tithi janya parvon men bhi antar a jata hai. atah hamen mukhya parvon ka itihas ke anusar sthan nishchit kar dena chahie. us sthan v tithi ke anusar hi parva ki ganna karni chahie. sabhi jagah us tarikh par hi vah parva manana chahie, chahe vahan tithi ya nakshatra koi bhi ho. dharm granthon men parva ke sath sthan ka ullekh nahin hai, lekin tithi ke anusar parva ki ganna karna anuchit hai. kabhi-kabhi ek parva do tarikhon ko parta hai. aisa aksar janmashtami v dipavli ke sath hota hai. karan hai donon parvon men madhyaratri kalin tithi, nakshatra adi ka liya jana. prayah pratahkal men tithi dusri hoti hai. atah ganna ke lie keval tithi ke anusar parva ki ganna kar dene ke karan yah antar ata hai. yadi parva ki ganna vidhivat ki jae, to is prakar ke antar nahin aenge. hindu dharm granthon men parva ganna ke lie vistrit sutra upalabdh hain, jisse ganna men koi sandeh mumkin nahin hai.
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panchang visheshank  April 2010

is anupam visheshank men panchang ke itihas vikas ganna vidhi, panchangon ki bhinnata, tithi ganit, panchang sudhar ki avashyakta, mukhya panchangon ki suchi v panchang parichay adi atyant upyogi vishyon ki vistrit charcha ki gai hai.pavan sthal namak stanbh ke antargat tirtharaj kailash mansrovar ka rochak varnan kiya gaya hai.

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