पंचांग इतिहास - विकास - गणना विधि

panchang itihas - vikas - ganna vidhi  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 11062 |  
panchang : itihas-vikas-ganna vidhi do. rupendra varma bhartiya panchang ke itihas ki jaren atyant gahri hain. kshetriyakaran ke kram men grahon, nakshatron adi ki is yugon purani ganna paddhati aur uske anusar manav jivan ke mahatvapurn pahluon par prakash dalne vale is sashakt madhyam ko parivartan ke anek charnon se gujrna para hai aur aj desh bhar men rashtriya panchang ke atirikt kai kshetriya panchang upalabdh hain. inmen se adhikansh sabse pahle lagadh ke vedang jyotish men pratipadit paddhati se lie gae hain. lagadh ke is vedang jyotish ka surya siddhant men mankikaran hua aur age chalakar aryabhatt, varahmihir aur bhaskar ne ismen vyapak sudhar kie. kshetron ki bhinnata ke karan panchangon ki gannaon men antar ata hai, kintu nimnalikhit tathya prayah sabhi panchangon men saman hain. bhartiya jyotirvigyan ki shastra evan prayog siddh ek svasth paranpra 'panchang' ke madh yam se hamare jivan ko alokit karti a rahi hai. panchang jyotishiya adhyayan ka ek anivarya upakaran hai. ise tithi patra ya patra bhi kahte hain. iska nam panchang islie hai ki iske panch mukhay ang hote hain - tithi, var, nakshatra, yog aur karan. vrihdvkhdachakram, panchang prakaran, shlok 1 men kaha gaya hai - tithi varishch nakshatran yog karnmev ch. eteshan yatra vigyanan panchang tannigadyate॥ pratyek pramanik panchang kisi sthan vishesh ke akshansh aur rekhansh par adharit hota hai. uske mukh prishth par akshansh rekhansh ka spasht ullekh rahta hai. jaise aryabhatt panchang ka nirman grinvich (landn) se 280 38' uttari akshansh tatha 770 12' purvi deshantar ke adhar par hota hai. panchang do paddhatiyon par nirmit hote hain - sayan aur nirayan. uttar bharat ke sabhi panchang nirayan paddhati par nirmit hote hain, jabki pashchatya deshon men sayan paddhati prachlit hai. tithi : chandra ki ek kala ko tithi kahte hain. kala ka man surya aur chandra ke antranshon par nikala jata hai. surya siddhant ke manadhyay, shlok 13 men tithi ka nirupan is prakar hai. arkadvinisrijah prachin yadyatyahrhah shadgai. tachchandramanmandgaustu gyaeya dvadadgabhistithiah॥ sanpurn bhachakra (3600) men 30 tithiyan hoti hain. atah ek tithi ka man 360÷30=120 hota hai. inmen 15 tithiyan krishn paksh ki tatha 15 shukla paksh ki hoti hain. parantu chandra ki gati men tivra bhinnata hone ke karan tithi ke man men nyunadhikta bani rahti hai. chandra apne parikrama path par ek din men lagabhag 130 ansh barhta hai. surya bhi prithvi ke sandarbh men ek din men 10 ya 60 kala age barhta hai. is prakar ek din men chandra ki kul barhat 130- 10 = 120 hi rah jati hai. yah barhat hi surya aur chandra ki gati ka antar hoti hai. amavasya ke din surya aur chandra sath-sath (ek hi rashi v anshon men) hote hain. unka rashyantar shunya hota hai, islie chandra dikhai nahin deta hai. jab donon ka antar shunya se barhne lagta hai tab ek tithi ka aranbh hone lagta hai arthat pratipda tithi shuru hoti hai. jab yah antar barhte-barhte 120 ansh ka ho jata hai, tab pratipda tithi purn aur dvitiya shuru ho jati hai. chunki pratipda tithi ko chandra surya se keval 120 ansh hi age niklta hai, islie is tithi ko bhi sadharntah akash men chandradarshan nahin hote hain. isi prakar surya-chandra ke rashyantron se tithi ka nirdharan hota hai. jab chandra surya se 1800 (120 g 15) age hota hai, tab purnima tithi samapt tatha krishnapaksh ki pratipda tithi aranbh hoti hai. punah jab surya aur chandra ka antar 3600 ya shunya hota hai tab krishn paksh ki amavasya tithi samapt hoti hai. var : bhartiya jyotish men ek var ek suryoday se dusre suryoday tak rahta hai. var ko paribhashit karte hue kaha gaya hai - udyat udyan varah. var ko prachin ganit jyotish men savan din ya ahargan ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. varon ka prachlit kram samast vishva men ek jaisa hai. sat varon ke nam sat grahon ke nam par rakhe gae hain. varon ka kram horakram ke adhar par hai aur hora kram brahmand men suryadi grahon ke kaksh kram ke anusar hain. nakshatra : jyotish shastra men samast meshadi rashi chakra arthat bhachakra (3600) ko 27 bhagon men banta gaya hai. har bhag ek nakshatra ka suchak hai aur har bhag ko ek nam diya gaya hai. inke atirikt ek aur nakshatra ka samavesh bhi kiya gaya hai, jise abhijit nakshatra kahte hain. is tarah bhartiya jyotish ke anusar bhachakra men kul 28 nakshatra hain. surya siddhant ke bhugoladhyay men shlok 25 ke anusar ek nakshatra ka man 3600 jh 27 arthat 13 ansh 20 kala hota hai. abhijit ko milakar 28 nakshatra ho jate hain. kintu sarvamanya mat ke anusar nakshatra kul 27 hi hain. kuch acharyon ke anusar uttarasharha nakshatra ki antim 15 tatha shravan nakshatra ki pratham 4 ghatiyan abhijit nakshatra ke nam hain. is tarah is nakshatra ka man abhijit nakshatra ka man kul milakar 19 hai. brihat sanhita ke chandrachar ke adhyay 4 shlok 7 men chandra ka nakshatron se yog batate hue kaha gaya hai- shadnagtanipaushnad dva a d sh a r a ai d ra a ch ch m dh y y a e g i i n . jeshthadyaninavarkshanyafduptinatitya yujyante॥ is shlok ke anusar bhi 27 nakshatron vala mat hi siddh hota hai. pashchatya jyotish men bhi abhijit ko uttarasharha evan shravan ke madhya mana gaya hai jise vega ;tamla.ddh kahte hain. jyotish men 27 nakshatron ko 12 rashiyon men vargikrit kiya gaya hai. pratyek nakshatra ke char bhag kie gae hain, jinhen nakshatra ka charan ya pad kahte hain. pratyek charan ka man 130 20' ÷ 4 = 3 ansh 20 kala hota hai. is prakar 27 nakshatron men kul 108 charan hote hain. vrihajjatakam ke radgia prabhedadhyay ke shlok 4 ke anusar pratyek rashi men 108 ÷ 12 = 9 charan honge. adhunik mat se chandra lagabhag 27 din 7 ghante 43 minat men prithvi ki nakshatrik ;aipkmtmansaddh parikrama karta hai. nakshatron ki kul sankhya bhi 27 hi hai. is prakar chandra lagabhag 1 din (60 ghati) men ek nakshatra ka bhog karta hai. kintu apni gati men nyunadhikta ke karan chandra ek nakshatra ko apni nyunatam gati se par karne men lagabhag 67 ghati tatha apni adhikatam gati se par karne men lagabhag 52 ghati ka samay le sakta hai. yog : panchang men mukhytah do prakar ke yog hote hain - anandadi tatha vishkanbhadi. yog panchang ke panchon angon men se ek hain. jis prakar surya aur chandra ke rashyantar se tithi ka nirdharan hota hai, usi prakar surya aur chandra ke rashyanshon ke yog (jor) se vishkanbhadi yog ka nirdharan hota hai. nakshatron ki bhanti yog koi tara samuh nahin hai balki yah ek vastu sthiti hai. akash men nirayan adi binduon se surya aur chandra ko sanyukt rup se 13 ansh 20 kala (800 kalaen) ka pura bhog karne men jitna samay lagta hai, vah yog kahlata hai. is prakar ek yog ka man nakshatra ki bhanti 800 kala hota hai. vishkanbhadi yogon ki kul sankhya 27 hai. yog ka dainik bhog madhyam man lagabhag 60 ghati 13 pal hota hai. surya aur chandra ki gatiyon ki asmanta ke karan madh yam man men nyunadhikta bani rahti hai. sugam jyotish ke sangyadhyay ke yogaprakaran ke shlok 1 evan vrihad avkhrachakram ke yogaprakaran ke shlok 1 men in yogon ko yatha nam tatha gun faldayak kaha gaya hai. in yogon men vaidhriti evan vyatipat namak yogon ko mahapat kahte hain. jab sayan surya aur chandra ka yog thik 1800 ya 3600 hota hai, us samay donon ki sankrantiyan saman hoti hain. 1800 ansh ke krantisamya ko vyatipat tatha 3600 ansh ke krantisamya ko vaidhriti kahte hain. suryasiddhant, patadhikar, shlok 1, 2 evan 20 men tantrik kriyaon ke lie krantisamya athva mahapat ki sthiti ko atyuttam mana gaya hai. var aur nakshatra ke sanyog se tatkalik anandadi yog bante hain. narad puran evan muhurt chintamni grathon men inki sankhya 28 darshai hai. inhen sthir yog bhi kahte hain. inki ganitiya kriya nahin hai. ye yog suryoday se agle suryoday tak rahte hain. in yogon ka nirdharan var vishesh ko nirdisht nakshatra se vidyaman nakshatra (abhijit sahit) tak ki ganna dvara hota hai. karan : karan tithi ka adha hota hai arthat surya aur chandra men 60 ansh ka antar hone men jitna samay lagta hai, use karan kahte hain. kintu kuch panchangkar tithi ki sanpurn avdhi ke do saman bhag karke sthul rup se karnon ka nirdharan kar dete hain. ek tithi men do karan hote hain. inki kul sankhya 11 hai. sugamajyotish, karan prakaran, shlok 1 men inke do bhed mane gae hai - char aur sthir. bav, balav, kaulav, taittil, gar, vanij evan vishti (bhadra) char aur shakuni, chatushpad, nag evan kinstughn sthir sangyak karan hain. chunki karan ki shuruat sthir karan kinstughn se hoti hai jab bhachakra men surya aur chandra ka rashyantar shunya hota hai tab pratipda tithi ke sath hi sthir karan kinstughn shuru hota hai. jab chandra apni tivra gati ke karan surya se 6 ansh age pahunch jata hai, tab kinstughn karan samapt ho jata hai. is prakar surya aur chandra men 6 ansh ke rashyantar hone men jo samay lagta hai, vah kinstughn karan kahlata hai. jaise hi chandra surya se 60 se age barhna shuru karta hai, bav namak char karan shuru ho jata hai. jab surya aur chandra ka rashyantar 120 ho jata hai, tab bav karan ke sath-sath pratipda tithi bhi samapt ho jati hai aur dvitiya tithi ke sath hi char karan balav ki shuruat hoti hai. yahi kram age bhi jari rahta hai. tithi ke purvardh ka char karan kaise gyat karen? narad puran ke anusar jis tithi ke purvardh ka karan gyat karna ho, usse purva ki gati tithiyon ko shukla paksh ki pratipda se ginen. taduprant prapt sankhya men 2 se guna karke 7 ka bhag den, jo sheshafal prapt hoga, vah us tithi ke purvardh men bavadi kram se ginne par abhisht karan hoga. panchang prayog se purva kya karen? alg-alag panchang kalangon ka digdarshan alg-alag ikaiyon v vidhaon men karte hain tatha alg-alag akshanshon aur rekhanshon ke adhar par nirmit hote hain. atah panchang ko upyog men lane se purva nimnalikhit tathyon ka palan karna chahie, taki ganna men truti n ho . panchang ka nirman grinvich se kitne akshansh evan rekhansh par hua hai, yah dekh lena chahie, taki apne sthal athva jatak ke janm sthal se charantar evan deshantar sanskar karne men truti nahin ho. akshanshiya evan deshantriya antar ke adhar par abhisht sthan evan panchag nirman ke sthan ka shuddh samyantar gyat hota hai. dekhna chahie ki panchang ki rachna men kaun sa aynansh prayukt hua hai - grahlaghviya, chitrapakshiya ya lahri ityadi. uttar bharat men chitrapakshiya aynansh prayukt hota hai. ise bharat sarkar ki manyata bhi prapt hai. iske atirikt yah bhi dekhna chahie ki panchang men diya gaya aynansh dhanun-sanskar-sanskrit hai athva nahin. jaise marttand panchang men dhanun- sanskar-sanskrit chitrapakshiya aynansh prayukt hota hai. is par bhi vichar karna chahie ki panchang men tithi, nakshatra, yog aur karan ke samapti kal tatha suryoday evan suryast kis ikai men hain - sthaniya samay men athva manak samay men. kashi ke shri hrishikesh tatha shri mahavir panchangon men suryoday, suryast tatha tithi, nakshatra, yog aur karan ka samapti kal sthaniya samay men diya gaya hai, jabki dilli ke vidyapith evan vishva vijay panchangon men suryoday, suryast aur tithi, nakshatra, yog tatha karan ka samaptikal bhartiya manak samay men diya gaya hai. yadi panchang men darshae gae pratidin ke suryoday evan suryast kal ka yog 12 ghante hota ho, to samjhna chahie ki panchang men sthaniya samay prayukt hua hai. dusri pahchan yah hai ki dinman (ghati-pal) men 5 ka bhag dene par sthaniya samay men (ghante-minat men)e suryastakal prapt hota hai. panchang men dinman ka suryoday evan suryast dvara pramanikaran hona chahie. panchang men suryoday ya suryast kisi bhi ikai men ho, dinman aprivartit rahta hai. suryast men se suryoday ghatakar shesh ghante-minat men dhai guna karne par dinman prapt hota hai. yah dinman (ghati-pal) panchang men die gae dinman ke tulya hona chahie. panchang men tithi, nakshatra, yog aur karan ke suryoday se samaptikal (ghanta-mint) inke ghati-palatmak man ke tulya hona chahie. jaise vidyapith panchang ke anusar 14 jun 1999 ko dilli men mrigshira nakshatra ka man 19 ghati 57 pal tatha manak samay men samaptikal 13 ghanta 26 minat hai, jabki is din dilli men suryoday (staindarda) 5 bajakar 27 minat par hota hai. tab mrigshira nakshatra ka samaptikal = 13 ghanta 26 minat (manak samy) suryoday kal = (-) 5 ghanta 27 minat (manak samy) shesh 7 ghanta 59 minat islie mrigshira nakshatra ka suryoday se ghati-palatmak man = 7 ghanta 59 ÷ 5/2 minat = 19 ghati 57 pal 30 vipal. atah is panchang men darshae gae tithi, nakshatra, yog evan karan ke ghati-palatmak man shuddh hain. navalagarh ke akshansh aur rekhansh par bane shri sarasvati panchang men tithi, nakshatra, yog v karan ko ghati-pal tatha ghanta-minat (manak samy) men bhinn prakar se vyakt kiya gaya hai. ismen tithi, nakshatra, yog evan karan ke ghati-palatmak man suryoday se inke samaptikal (ghanta-mint) ke dhai guna ke barabar prapt nahin hote hain. is panchang men tithi, nakshatra, yog evan karan ke ghati palatmak man navalagarh ke madhyarkoday ke likhe gae hain. ghati pal men dhai ka bhag dekar bhagafal (ghanta-mint) ke 6 ghante 29 minat men jorne par tithi, nakshatra, yog evan karan ka suryoday se samapti kal bhartiya manak samay men prapt hota hai. udaharan ke lie sarasvati panchang men dinank 6 sitanbar 1994 ko purva falguni nakshatra ka man 16 ghati 4 pal tatha manak samay men 12 bajakar 53 minat diya gaya hai, jabki is din navalagarh men suryoday 6 bajakar 13 minat par hota hai. tab purvafalguni nakshatra ka ghati palatmak man = 16 ghati 4 pal ÷ 5/2 = 6 ghanta 25 minat 36 sekand. ismen 6 ghante 29 minat jorne par purva falguni nakshatra ka samaptikal (manak samay men) 12 bajakar 54 minat prapt hota hai, jo lagabhag panchang men darshae gae man ke tulya hai. isi prakar tithi, yog evan karan ke samaptikal manak samay men gyat kar sakte hain. panchang men yah dekhna chahie ki suryodyastakal men kiran vakri bhavan sanskar kiya gaya hai athva nahin. suryodyastakal men kiran vakri bhavan sanskar karne se vastavik kshitij vritt ke udyastakal men sukshmantar a jata hai, jisse isht banane men tatha dharmik nirnayon men truti hona sanbhav hai. parantu suryodyast kal men ghari ka milan karna ho, to panchang men darshae gae suryoday men 2 minat kiran vakri bhavan sanskar ghatane tatha suryast men 2 minat jorne par ghati yantra se milna chahie. kiran vakri bhavan sanskar ke karan dinman bhi lagabhag 10 pal barh jata hai. panchang prayog se purva dekhen ki chandra sanchar manak samay men diya gaya hai ya ghati-palatmak man men. vanibhushan panchang men tithi, nakshatra, yog evan karan ka man ghati-pal tatha manak samay (ghanta-mint) men jabki vidyapith aur divakar panchangon men chandra sanchar ko manak samay (ghanta-mint) men vyakt kiya gaya hai. vahin nirnay sagar evan vishva panchang men chandra sanchar ghati-pal men darshaya gaya hai. yah bhi dekh chahie ki panchang men grah spasht kis din ke aur kitne baje ke die gae hain? jaise nirnay sagar panchang men ashtami, purnima evan amavasya ke suryoday kalin grah spasht hote hain. vidyapith panchang men pratah 6 bajakar 21 minat ke pratidin ke grahaspasht hote hain. aryabhatt tatha shri marttand panchangon men pratah 5 bajakar 30 minat ki dainik grah spasht sarni hoti hai. shatak marttand panchang men 1980 se purva grahon ki sthiti sayan 5 bajakar 30 minat ki di gai hai. ujjain ki jivaji vedhshala ki efemrij men dopahar 12 ke sayan grah spasht darshae gae hain. is par bhi vichar karna chahie ki panchang men rahu spasht diya gaya hai ya madhyam. madhyam rahu evan spasht rahu men adhikatam 1 ansh ka antar hota hai. ketu rahu se 180 ansh ki duri par rahta hai. yah bhi dekh len ki belantar sarni rinatmak tatha dhanatmak chihnon ke anusar sahi hai ya nahin aur belantar sanskar karne ke panchang men kya nirdesh die gae hain. vidyapith panchang men di gai belantar sarni ke anusar 26 disanbar se 14 aprail tak tatha 15 jun se 31 agast tak belantar rin (-) aur 15 aprail se 14 jun tak tatha 1 sitanbar se 25 disanbar tak belantar dhan (+) hota hai. panchang men di gai lagn sarni kis akshansh evan kis aynansh par bani hui hai iska vichar karna bhi avashyak hota hai. uttar bharat ke anek panchangon men bhinna-bhinn akshanshon evan aynanshon par bani lagn sarniyan di gai hain. udaharan ke lie nirnay sagar panchang (shak 2058) men uttari akshansh 17.50 ansh se 28.50 ansh tak ki ath lagn sarniyan di gai hain. ye lagn sarniyan 24 ansh aynansh par bani hui hain. panchang men siddhantiya varsh pravesh sarni di gai hai athva navin vedhopalabdh varsh pravesh sarni is par bhi vichar karna chahie, kyonki donon sarniyon men sukshmantar hota hai. is par vichar karna jaruri hota hai ki panchang ki lastar pankti men vyakt bhadra, panchak evan sarvarthasiddhadi yogon ka samaptikal bhartiya manak samay (ghanta-mint) men hai athva ghati-pal men. ukt tathyon ke atirikt aur bhi anekanek tathya hain, jinka panchang vichar ke samay vishleshan karna avashyak hota hai, anyatha se muhurt, lagnadi ki ganna ke trutipurn hone ki sanbhavna rahti hai.
Kya aapko lekh pasand aaya? Subscribe
Kya aapko lekh pasand aaya? Subscribe


panchang visheshank  April 2010

is anupam visheshank men panchang ke itihas vikas ganna vidhi, panchangon ki bhinnata, tithi ganit, panchang sudhar ki avashyakta, mukhya panchangon ki suchi v panchang parichay adi atyant upyogi vishyon ki vistrit charcha ki gai hai.pavan sthal namak stanbh ke antargat tirtharaj kailash mansrovar ka rochak varnan kiya gaya hai.

Subscribe

Apne vichar vyakt karein

blog comments powered by Disqus
.