उत्तर भारत में पंचांग निर्माण के स्थल

uttar bharat men panchang nirman ke sthal  

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uttar bharat men panchang nirman ke sali pan. brijmohan 'nirala' panchang ka nirman vaidik kal se hota a raha hai. pahle kabhi yah ekang tithi matra tha. bad men nakshatra evan var ke sammilit ho jane par yah dvyang evan tryang bana. kalantar men yog evan karan ke samavisht hone par ise panchang kaha jane laga. bharat men kai sthanon par panchang ka nirman hota hai. panchang nirman ki yah paranpra sudirgh hai. driksiddh shuddh panchang ke nirmanarth uttar bharat men savai raja jaysinh ne ujjain, kashi, dilli, jaypur evan mathura men bhavya vedhshalaon ka nirman karvaya. vibhinn sthalon par sthit vedh ashalaon se prapt grah aur nakshatron ki rashichakra men anshatmak sthiti gyat kar shuddh ganit se panch angon tithi, var, nakshatra, yog evan karan ka vishleshan kiya jata tha. panchang ka nirman siddhant granthon men vyakt ganit ke adhar par hota hai, islie iska nirman kisi bhi sthal par kiya ja sakta hai. ganit ki sahayta se sapekshatah prithvi ke kisi bhi sthal ke dik, desh evan kal ka anayan kiya ja sakta hai. siddhant granthon ke adhar par nirmit hone vale panchangon ka ganit keval kisi sthan vishesh ke lie hi nahin hota, apitu in granthon men vyakt ganit ke adhar par bharat ke kisi samay ki surya, chandra ityadi grahon ki gati-sthiti tatha udyast, grahan ityadi jyotish sanbandhi tathyon ki jankari prapt ki ja sakti hai. atah spasht hai ki panchang ka nirman kisi bhi sthal par kiya ja sakta hai. uttarabharat ke panchangon men panchang parivartan ki ganitiya vidhi di gai hoti hai jiske dvara ek sthal par nirmit panchang ko anya sthal ke panchang men parivartit kiya ja sakta hai. panchang ke sarvabhaumik mahatva ko dhyan men rakhte hue prayas kiya jata hai ki iska nirman aise sthal (akshansh-rekhansh) par kiya jae jahan ki jansankhya adhi ak ho, taki iska labh adhik se adhik logon ko mil sake. yahi karan hai ki uttar bharat men dilli evan kashi se anek panchang niklte hain. yadyapi bharat ke kisi bhi sthal par bane panchang ko deshantar, charantar ityadi sanskaron dvara sthaniya panchang men parivartit kar sakte hain, kintu sthaniya panchang ka upyog karna adhik uchit hota hai. panchang ke nirman men sthal ka vishesh mahatva hai. nirman sthal ke akshansh aur rekhansh athva palbha ke adhar hi ganit ki sahayta se tithi, var (var pravritti), nakshatra, yog evan karan ke ghati-palatmak manon ko panchang ke madhyam se vyakt kiya jata hai. bhinna-bhinn sthalon par nirmit panchangon men tithyadi ke ghati-palatmak man bhinna-bhinn hote hain, jo sthaniya suryoday ke adhar par gyat kie jate hain. aj se kuch varsh purva jyotirvid svanirmit sthaniya panchang prayog karte the. kalantar men uttar bharat men panchang ka nirman adhi akanshtah har prant evan mandal men hone laga. vartaman men uttar bharat men panchang nirman ke pramukh sthal is prakar hain. (1) kashi(u.pra.) (2) dilli (3) ujjain (m.pra.) (4) kalakatta (p.ban.) (5) jodhpur (rajasthan) (6) chandigarh (hariyana) (7) jalandhar (panjab) (8) darbhanga (bihar) (9) navalagadh (rajasthan) (10) mathura (u.pra.) (11) jablpur (m.pra.) (12) ramagarh (rajasthan) (13) ayodhya (u.pra.) (14) datiya (m.pra.) (15) garhval (uttaranchl) kashi (varansi) : uttar bharat men kashi dharmik drishti se hi nahin varan jyotishiya adhyayan ki drishti se bhi ek mahatvapurn sthal hai. kashi ko shiv ka vas sthan kaha jata hai. narad puran ke bhag 2 ke adhyay 6 ke shlok 34-36 men maharshi narad ne kashi ke mahatmya ka varnan karte hue kaha hai ki sabhi devon ka ek matra vas sthan varansi puri sanpurn tirthon men uttam tirth hai. jo is param tirth varansi (kashi) kshetra ka smaran karte hain, ve sab papon se mukt hokar shivlok ko chale jate hain.1 atah spasht hai ki kashi ka dharmik drishti se atyadhik mahatva hai. bharat ke manchitra par kashi grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 830 : 0' tatha uttari akshansh 250 : 19' par sthit hai. ganga ke kinare sthit hone ke karan kashi men jap, dan, vrat evan snan adi dharmik krityon ka vishesh mahatva hai. dharmik krityon ke sanpadan evan shubhashubh samyanusar sanpann karne ki vidhi ka gyan panchang ke madhyam se hota hai. atah panchang nirman ki drishti se bhi kashi ek ati mahatvapurn sthal hai. jyotish ka adhyayan yahan prachinkal se hota a raha hai. kashi se niklne vale panchangon men pramukh hain - vishva panchang, shri hrishikesh (kashi vishvanath) panchang, bapudev shastri pravartit driksiddh panchang, gyanmandal saur panchang, shri mahavir panchang, shri ganesh apa panchang ityadi. in panchangon ka nirman alg-alag siddhant athva karan granthon ke adhar par nirayan paddhati se hota hai. dilli dilli n keval bharat ki rajdhani hai, balki uttar bharat men panchang nirman ka mahatvapurn sthal hai. bharat ke manchitra par dilli nagar grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 770 : 12' aur uttari akshansh 280 : 38' par sthit hai. dilli ki jansankhya ek karor se bhi adhik hai, faltah yahan jyotish ki avashyakta ki drishti se panchangon ki bikri bhi adhik hoti hai. dilli ka prabhav sanpurn bharat par dikhai deta hai isilie yahan ke ghatnakram ka adhyayan jyotish ki drishti se bhi kiya jata hai. dilli se niklne vale panchangon me pramukh hain - vishvavijay panchang, shri aryabhatt panchang, vidyapith panchang evan pan. jaini jiyalal shikhar chandra ji chaudhri krit asli panchang ityadi. in sabhi panchangon ka nirman chitrapakshiya evan nirayan paddhati se kiya jata hai. vidyapith panchang ka nirman lal bahadur shastri sanskrit vidyapith (manit vi.vi.) ke tatvavdhan men hota hai. iske pradhan sanpadak kulpti mahoday hote hain. is panchang ka nirman vidyapith ki vedhshala ki sahayta se hota hai. yah ek driksiddh shuddh panchang hai. dilli sthit dharmasan prakashan se prakashit shri aryabhatt panchang ke pradhan sanpadak panlaksh minarayan sharma hain. yah panchang mukhytah arya siddhant par adharit hai. vishvavijay panchang ke adya sanpadak sva. shri hardev sharma (trivedi) evan sanpadak shri sudhakar sharma trivedi hain. vartaman men vishvavijay panchang ke mudrak evan vitarak ruchika pablikeshan hain. ukt sabhi panchangon ka nirman dilli ke akshansh-rekhansh athva palbha ke adhar par navin drik ganit ki sahayta se ho raha hai. is tarah spasht hai ki uttar bharat men panchang nirman ki drishti se dilli ek ati mahatvapurn sthal hai. ujjain ujjayini ya avantika guptakal men khagol-jyotish ka pramukh kendra evan vikhyat khagolagya varahmihir ki karmabhumi rahi thi. jyotishiya adhyayan ki drishti se ujjain ka vishesh mahatva hai. bharat ke manchitra par ujjain grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 750 43' aur uttari akshansh 230 1' par sthit hai. prachin acharyon ne ujjain ko yamyottar (dakshinottara) rekha par darshaya hai. surya siddhant ke anusar lanka aur sumeru parvat ke bich prithvi par khinchi gai rekha par sthit nagar rekhapur kahlate hain. rohitak, avanti (ujjayini) evan kurukshetra ityadi eaise hi nagar hain. yamyottar rekha par sthit hone ke karan siddhant granthon men ujjayini ke suryoday kalin madhyam grahon ko darshaya gaya hai. siddhant shiromni ke anusar jo rekha lanka, ujjayini, kurukshetra adi ko sparsh karti hui sumeru parvat tak gai hai, use vidvanon ne bhu-madhya rekha kaha hai. bhartiya jyotish men 0 deshantar arthat lanka ke adhar par grah ganna ki gai hai tatha deshantar adi sthaniya sanskar ujjayini se kie gae hain. iski bhaugolik sthiti ko jyotish ke upyukt pakar savai raja jaysinh ne yahan ek vedhshala ka nirman karaya. aj se lagabhag panch hajar varsh purva jab surya ki paramakranti 240 tatha ujjain ke akshansh tulya the5 tab surya ujjain ke kha-madhya men akar hi apna parmottar gaman purn karke dakshinabhimukh yatra karta tha. var-pravritti ka gyan bhi ujjaini se kiya jata hai. is tarah, uttar bharat men panchang nirman ki drishti se ujjain ek mahatvapurn sthal hai. mahakaleshvar ki nagri se vikhyat ujjain se niklne vale panchangon men drishya grah sthiti panchang evan vikram vijay panchang pramukh hain. estronomikal efemrij ka nirman jivaji shaskiya vedhshala, ujjain se prapt khagoliya drishya grah sthiti ke adhar par hota hai. is efemrij men bhartiya samyanusar dopahar 12 baje ke sayan grahaspasht darshae gae hain. estronomikal efemrij men vyakt spasht grahon ke bhogyanshon men chalan evan aynansh hin karne par kalakatta ki lahri efemrij men vyakt spashtagrahon ke bhogyanshon ke tulya prapt hote hain. ujjain ke sandipan vyas prakashan se prakashit vikram vijay panchang ke pradhan sanpadak do. madan vyas hain. yah ek shastrasammat panchang hai. ujjain ke akshanshadi par hi shri matribhumi panchang ka nirman ketki chitrapakshiya drishya ganit ke anusar hota hai. do. vishnu kumar sharma iske panchangkar hain. ukt panchangon ke atirikt kuch anya panchang bhi ujjain se prakashit hote hain jinmen pan. bhagvti prasad pandey dvara sanpadit shri vi kramaditya panchang aur pan. anand drankar vyas dvara prakashit narayan vijay panchang adi pramukh hain. jablpur jablpur bharat ke manchitra par grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 790 57' tatha uttari akshansh 230 10' par sthit hai. yahan se niklne vale panchangon men bhuvan vijay panchang evan lok vijay panchang pramukh hain. kalakatta kalakatta bharat ke purvottar bhag men sthit hai. yah bharat ki sarvadhik jansankhya vale nagron men se ek hai. yah grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 880 23' tatha uttari akshansh 230 35' par sthit hai. yahan sthit pojishanal estronomi sentar se di indiyan estronomikal efemrij niklti hai, jiska prakashan suchna evan prasaran mantralay, bharat sarkar ka prakashan vibhag karta hai. iske atirikt lahri indiyan efemrij ka nirman bhi kalakatta ke akshansh-rekhansh par hota hai. lahri indiyan efemerij men bha.ma.s. men pratah 5 bajakar 30 minat ke nirayan spasht grahon ko darshaya jata hai. is efemerij ki shuruat khagolagya shri nirmal chandra lahri ne san 1948 men ki. shri nirmal chandra lahri ke anusar shak 207 (285 i.) men aynansh shunya manakar nirayan grah ganna nirdeshit hai. kalakatta se niklne vale panchangon men ye donon efemerij pramukh hain. is tarah, panchang nirman ki drishti se kalakatta ek mahatvapurn sthal hai. jodhpur jodhpur rajasthan prant ka pramukh shahar hai, jo grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 730 2' tatha uttari akshansh 260 18' par sthit hai. nirnayasagar, chandmarttand panchang tatha shri gajendra vijay panchang ka nirman jodhpur ke akshansh-rekhansh ke adhar par hota hai. svalpantar se nirnay sagar panchang men jodhpur ke rekhansh 730 4' ka prayog kiya gaya hai. donon panchangon men chitrapakshiya aynansh grahan kiya gaya hai. pan. shri bhavani shankar ka nirnayasagar panchang sanpurn uttar bharat men prasiddh hai. shri gajendra vijay panchang evan nai dilli ke shri vishvavijay panchang donon ka grahgnit evan nirman paddhati ek saman hai. in donon panchangon ke adya sanpadak shri hardev sharma trivedi hain. navalagarh rajasthan prant ka navalagarh shahar grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 750 18' tatha uttari akshansh 270 51' par sthit hai. inhin akshanshadi ke adhar par jaypur jyotish mantralay dvara pratyakshanubhav karke sukshm drishya ganit se venkteshvar shatabdi panchang tatha panchavarshiya shri sarasvati panchang ka nirman hota hai. donon panchangon ke sanpadak pan. ishvar datt ji sharma hain. rajasthan ke ek aur shahar ajmer se pan. bhavar lal joshi ke adityavijay panchang ka prakashan hota hai. chandigadh hariyana prant men sthit chandigarh grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 760 52' tatha uttari akshansh 300 44' par sthit hai, jinke adh aar par shri marttand panchang ka nirman hota hai. nirayan paddhati ke is panchang men chitrapakshiya aynansh grahan kiya gaya hai. is panchang ke adya sanpadak pan. shri mukundavallabh mishra hain. jalandhar panjab prant men sthit shahar jalandhar grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 750 18' tatha uttari akshansh 310 21' par sthit hai, jinke adhar par panchang divakar ka nirman hota hai. is panchang men bhi chitrapakshiya nirayan paddhati ko apnaya gaya hai. is panchang ke sansthapak pandevi dayalu jyotishi lahaur vale hain. darbhanga bihar prant men sthit darbhanga shahar grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 850 54' tatha uttari akshansh 260 10' par sthit hai. yahan sthit kameshvar sinh sanskrit vishvavidyalay se vishvavidyalay panchang ka prakashan hota hai. yah panchang purnatah shastrasammat hai. mathura uttarapradesh ka mathura shahar hai grinvich se purvi rekhansh 770 41' tatha uttari akshansh 270 28' par sthit hai. bhagvan shrikrishn ki janmabhumi mathura ke akshanshadi ke adhar par shri brajbhumi panchang ka nirman hota hai. is panchang men ketki chitrapakshiya aynansh ka prayog hota hai. is panchang ke sanpadak pan. shri kaushal kishor kaushik hain. yah panchang san 1994 i. se prakashit ho raha hai. ramagarh (shekhavti) ramagarh (shekhavti) bharat ke manchitra par grinvich se purvi rekhansh 740 59' tatha uttari akshansh 280 0' par sthit hai. ramagarh (dgokhavti) ke akshanshadi ke adhar par vedhsiddh sukshmadrishya ganit se pan. shri vallabh maniram panchang ka nirman hota hai. is panchang ke ganit karta pan. shri gyarsilal shastri hain. shri venkteshvar shatabdi panchang, shri sarasvati panchang evan shri vallabh maniram panchang ke grah ganit ka siddhant saman pratit hota hai. ayodhya ayodhya bhagvan shri ram ki janmasthali ke rup men ek dharmik sthal hai. yah grinvich rekha se purvi rekhansh 820 12' tatha uttari akshansh 260 47' par sthit hai, jinke adhar par yahan se shriram janmabhumi panchang ka nirman hota hai. is panchang ke sanpadak pan. vindhyeshvari prasad shukla hain. uparyukt sthalon ke atirikt uttar bharat ke kai anya shahron se bhi panchangon ka prakashan hota hai, jinmen gvaliyar se doshri krishn bhalchandra shastri muslganvakar dvara rachit panchang, datiya (m.pra.) se prakashit tantrik panchang, ahmdabad se prakashit sandesh pratyaksh panchang, rudrapur (nainital) se pan. shri bholadatt mahtoliya krit shri devbhumi panchang, karauli (rajasthan) se rajajyotishi pan. shri shivnarayan sharma 'mahesh' dvara sanpadit shivvinodi madnmohan panchang adi pramukh hain.
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panchang visheshank  April 2010

is anupam visheshank men panchang ke itihas vikas ganna vidhi, panchangon ki bhinnata, tithi ganit, panchang sudhar ki avashyakta, mukhya panchangon ki suchi v panchang parichay adi atyant upyogi vishyon ki vistrit charcha ki gai hai.pavan sthal namak stanbh ke antargat tirtharaj kailash mansrovar ka rochak varnan kiya gaya hai.

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