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panchang - sudhar avashyak kyon?  

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panchang-sudhar avashyak kyon? brajendra shrivastav bhartiya panchang srishti ki kalgnna ka mahatvapurn adhar hai. ismen srishti ke aranbh sanbandhi thos aur vaigyanik tathya ullikhit hain. iski vaigyanikta ki pushti aj ke bhautik shastri bhi kar rahe hain. antriksh vaigyanik aur mangal grah par antriksh yan vaiking utarne vale dal ke sadasyagan tatha bahucharchit tivi siriyal kosmos ke nirdeshak aur kosmos pustak ke lekhak karla saga bhi bhartiya panchang paddhati ki mahatta ko svikarte hain. unka manna hai ki bhartiya panchang men prithvi ki aur fir srishti ki kalgnna nishchit ikaiyon men di gai hai jo adhunik brahmand vigyan ki ganna se puri tarah mel khati hai. karla saga ka kahna hai ki prithvi par keval yahiek dharmik paranpar hai jo sahi samay mapdand ki bat karti hai. unke anusar kal ki yah bhartiya avdharna sahi aur vigyanasammat hai. ukt tathyon ko dekhte hue bhartiya kalgnna ke adhar panchangon ki sanrchna aur ganna pranali ko tatha vibhinn puranon men di gai srishti rachna ki saiddhantik vidhiyon par khule man se vichar karne ki avashyakta hai. panchang ko dharmik karya ya muhurt ki suchi matra samjhne ke bhram se ubrna avashyak hai. jab panchang ki kalgnna srishti rachna se sidhe taur par juri hai (yah aj ka vigyan manta hai), to fir ise pathyakram ki khagol, bhugol, samajshastra, brahmand vigyan, estrofijiks ityadi ki kisi shakha men saiddhantik avdharna ke rup men madhyamik ya snatak star par shamil kiya jana hi chahie. isse panchang sanbandhi jo ashuddhiyan, visangtiyan adi aj dekhne men a rahi hain, un par charcha ke lie bahut bara sushikshit varg upalabdh hoga. panchangon ki ashuddhiyan aur matbhed kya hain? samanya logon ko panchangon ke saiddhantik matbhedon se kuch lena dena nahin hota. unhen to vraton, tyoharon, parvon adi ki ek nishchit tarikh v nishchit samay ki jankari ki hi apeksha rahti hai. panchangon ki kuch pramukh visangtiyan is prakar hain. vrat, tyohar adi ki tarikhen aksar do din batai jati hain. ek hi kshetra ke do panchangon men tithiyon, nakshatron adi ke aranbh v samapti kal, suryodyast, chandrodyast, guru, shukra lopadarshan arthat surya se grahon ke ast evan uday men dinon v ghanton ka antar dekha jata hai. muharton par matbhed rahte hain. is antar ke karnon ka sankshipt vishleshan yahan prastut hai. surya siddhant tatha iske adhar par bane karan granthon jaise grah laghviya, makrandiya adi sabhi men is bat par jor hai ki grahon ki sthiti batane vale ganit men samy-samay par bij sanskar karte rahna chahie arthat sutron men sudhar karte rahna chahie tatha prapt grah ganit ki pushti akash men grahon ke pratyaksh vedh se karte rahna chahie. parantu bhaskaracharya (12vin sadi) ke bad se grah ganit ke sutron men sudhar-sanshodhan nahin ke barabar kie gae hain. islie alg-alag siddhanton ke falasvarup grahon ki alg-alag sthiti ati hai jo aksar akash men vastavik sthiti se mel nahin khati. tithi kal par matbhed jab surya aur chandra ke bich paraspar konatmak antar 12 ansh ka ho jata hai, to ek tithi puri hoti hai. is prakar 360 anshon men 12-12 anshon ke antar se 30 tithiyan hoti hain. chunki chandra ki chal ya gati asthir hai, islie vah 12 anshon ke kal khand ko paranpragat manyata ke anusar adhikatam 65 ghatiyon arthat 26 ghanton men aur nyunatam 54 ghatiyon arthat 21 ghante aur 36 minat men pura karta hai. vahin adhunik vaigyanik ganna ke anusar chandra ko tithikhand pura karne men adhikatam 67 ghatiyon arthat 26 ghante aur 48 minat se nyunatam 50 ghatiyon arthat 20 ghanton tak ka samay lag sakta hai. is prakar in do maton ke anusar tithi ki adhikatam lanbai 26 ghante se 26 ghante 48 minat tak nyunatam lanbai 20 ghante se 21 ghante 36 minat tak ho sakti hai. is karan tithi adharit vraton, tyoharon ke nirnay men matbhed ana svabhavik hai. udaharanasvarup, yadi ekadshi ka nirnay karne men 45 ghatiyon (ratri 12 baje) se jara bhi adhik dashmi ho, to dashmi viddha hone ke karan vah ekadshie bhagavat puran ke anusar tyajya hogi. adhikansh panchang adhunik mat ki tithi man lete hain par grah laghviya mat se bane panchang 60 ghati men ban vriddhi (ban arthat kam dev ke 5 ban ke 5 ank barhakr) tatha rasakshay (rasakshay arthat 60 ghati men ras arthat shadras ke 6 ank ghatakr) arthat 54 ghati tak tithi ka man lete hain. isse vrat nirnay men bhinnata ati hai. isi se juri ek anya bat hai, vah yah ki chandra ka ganit bhuprishthiya (toposentrik) hone par bhukendriya (jiyosentrik) ganit se lagabhag derh ansh ka antar ata hai, jo tithiman men antar paida karta hai. tithi kis karya men bhuprishthiya ho aur kis men bhukendriya iska spasht nirdesh shastron men milta hai, par shastrakaron men matbhed hain. ye shastrakar tark evan vivek se kam lene ke badle apni-apni paranpra ka poshan karte hain. shubh karyon men guru aur shukra ke udyast ka vishesh mahatva hai. akshansh bhed se inke udyast men antar ana svabhavik hai jaisa ki suryodyast men hota hai. islie kisi kshetra ke panchang ko dekhakar purohitagan apne-apne kshetra men us grah ke udyast par vichar kie bina faisla suna dete hain jo shastra viruddh hai. surya se jitne ansh ki duri par koi grah uday ya ast hota hai, use kalansh kahte hain. in kalanshon par siddhanton men matbhed hai. grah ki chamak aur unnatansh ka vichar bhi karna chahie, jo prayah nahin kiya jata hai. sabse dukhad aur ashcharya ki bat to yah hai ki adhikansh jyotishi n to kisi grah ko pahchan sakte hain aur n hi kisi nakshatra ya rashi ko. ye jyotishi kisi grah ke uday ya ast ko pratyaksh dekhne ka kasht bhi nahin karte. panchangon ki ritugnna vastavik ritu angaman se 24 din piche ho chuki hai. hamari kalgnna n to puri tarah surya ke varshik bhraman par adharit hai aur n hi puri tarah chandra ke varshik bhraman par adharit hai. hamare panchangon ki ganna saur-chandra adharit arthat lunisolar hai. is paddhati men mason ki ganna tatha mason par adharit tyoharon ki ganna to chandra ke adhar par chaitra, vaishakhadi nam se hai, par chandra ka varshik bhraman kal surya ke varshik bhraman kal se 11 din chota hai. dusri or rituen surya par adharit hain, islie chandra mason se ritu ki sangti baithane ke lie lagabhag 3 varsh men ek adhik mas jorakar chandra mason ke vraton, tyoharon adi ko ritunishth banane ka upakram kiya jata hai. par yah paryapt nahin hai. adhikansh jyotishigan panchang ke siddhanton ka adhyayan nahin karte, keval falit jyotish men hi vyast rahte hain. aisa mante hain ki adhik mas vyavastha se rituon se hamari kalgnna ka samanjasya ho jata hai, par tathya aisa nahin hai. iska pramukh karan yah hai ki hamare panchangkron ne jis kal ko surya ka varshik bhraman kal man liya hai, jo surya ke nakshatra se chalakar varsh bhar men punah usi nakshatra par ane ka samay hota hai, (ise nakshatra varsh ya saidiriyal varsh kahte hain) uska man ritunishth ya tropikal varshaman se lagabhag 24 minat adhik hai. is prakar pratyek varsh vastavik ritu se 24 minat bad varsh aranbh hone se prativarsh 0.01656 din ke hisab se yah ashuddhi lagabhag 71 varsh men 1 ansh ya ek din ki ho jati hai. pichle derh hajar varsh ka ritunishth varshaman n lekar nakshatra varsh man lene ke karan yah ashuddhi 2010 men 24 din ki ho gai hai arthat ritu 24 din pahle tatha panchang ki ganna ki ashuddh ritu 24 din bad a rahi hai. shubh karyon men guru aur shukra ke udyast ka vishesh mahatva hai. akshansh bhed se inke udyast men antar ana svabhavik hai jaisa ki suryodyast men hota hai. islie kisi kshetra ke panchang ko dekhakar purohitagan apne-apne kshetra men us grah ke udyast par vichar kie bina faisla suna dete hain jo shastra viruddh hai. varahmihir ne bhi visangti mani hai, jaisa ki niche ullikhit hai. ashuddh varshaman lene ke karan hi, jo uttarayan 21 disanbar ko vastavik rup se hota hai (uttarayan se din bare hone lagte hain yah dekhne samjhne ke lie khagol ganitagya hone ki jarurat nahin, dinon ka bara hona 21 disanbar se hi shuru hota hai), panchang men 14 janvri ko dikhaya jata hai. prithvi ki ek tisri gati ke karan ayan aur sanpat bindu lagabhag 50 sekend af ark prativarsh, rashi chakra ke sandarbh se piche khisak rahe hain tatha 26 hajar varsh men ye ayan sanpat bindu punah usi sthan par a jate hain. bhartiya panchang karon ne sanpat bindu mesh aranbh par tatha uttarayan bindu makar aranbh par sthir man liya hai. vahin varahmihir ne chathi sadi ke apne granth brihatsanhita ke adityachar adhyay men in binduon ka piche khiskna svikar kiya hai. ''yah nishchat hai ki kisi samay ashlesha ke adhe bhag se (arthat kark ke akhiri anshon se) surya ka dakshinayan hota tha tatha dhanishtha ke adi bhag se (arthat makar rashi ke akhir men jahan dhanishtha ke do charan makar men ate hain) uttarayan ki pravritti thi kyonki purva men iski charcha hoti thi. (parantu) is samay (varah mihir ke kal chathi sadi men) kark ke aranbh se (arthat punarvasu se) surya ke dakshinayan ki tatha makradi se (arthat uttarasharh nakshatra se) uttarayan ki pravritti hoti hai. (adityachar adhyay 1-2) is prakar vastavik ritu se panchangon ki ritu 24 din bad aranbh ho rahi hai. dharmashastron ke anusar sabhi dharmik karya nirdisht rituon men hi hone chahie, kyonki rituen hi prithvi par pran ka adhar hain. bhakti v prakriti ke bich layatmak sanbandh rituen hi sthapit karti hain. sanvatsar ka arth hi hai vah, jismen rituon ka vas ho. is drishti se dekhen to kya panchang dharm men adharm ka karya karte nahin dikhte? panchangon ka ek dvandva yah hai ki dharmashastron men vrat, tyohar adi ka nirdesh chandra mas ke adhar par diya gaya hai, jaise bhadrapad chaturmas men shri krishn janmashtami, chaitra chaturmas men ramnvmi ityadi. yadi ye mas prati 71 varsh men ek din ke hisab se rituon se age barhte jaenge, to abhi jo antar 24 dinon ka hai vah 1500-2000 varsh men ek derh mas kar ho jaega. tab sardi men janmashtami aur garmi men ramnvmi manane se dharmashastra ka vastavik ud‌edashya kaise pura hoga? madhumas punita ramajanm ka mas hai, jo vasantsuchak hai. chaitra mas gaun hai. islie vartaman panchangon ki samasya varshaman ashuddhi ke karan utpann chandra mas aur saur mas men talmel ki bhi hai. yah samasya matra khagoliya ya dharmashastriya nahin hai, balki samajshastriya bhi hai. jo bat samaj men derh hajar varsh se rurh ho gai hai, uske samadhan ke lie sabhi star par prayas karne ki avashyakta hai. tatparya yah ki jo panchang srishti ki vaigyanik aur satik kalgnna kar sakte hain, unse hamari sanskriti aur jivan paddhati bhi juri hai, islie panchangon men sudhar ki tatkal avashyakta hai.
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panchang visheshank  April 2010

is anupam visheshank men panchang ke itihas vikas ganna vidhi, panchangon ki bhinnata, tithi ganit, panchang sudhar ki avashyakta, mukhya panchangon ki suchi v panchang parichay adi atyant upyogi vishyon ki vistrit charcha ki gai hai.pavan sthal namak stanbh ke antargat tirtharaj kailash mansrovar ka rochak varnan kiya gaya hai.

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