त्योहार की एकरूपता के लिए जरूरी है तिथियों की एकरूपता

tyohar ki ekrupta ke lie jaruri hai tithiyon ki ekrupta  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 4031 |  
tyohar ki ekrupta ke lie jaruri hai tithiyon ki ekrupta pan. sunil joshi junnarakar jyotish shastra kalbodhak shastra hai. iske tin pramukh skandh hain - siddhant, sanhita v hora. samay (kal) ka gyan siddhant adharit hai. islie siddhant shastron ke adhar par hi kalbodhak patra (panchang) ka nirman hota hai. tithi, var, nakshatra, yog, karan ye panchang ke panch pramukh ang hai. bhartiya vrat evan parvon ke nirdharan men panchang ki bhumika aham hoti hai. sabhi shraut-smart karmon ki siddhi shubh muhurt par adharit hai. atah shubh karyon ke shubharanbh ke lie shubh muhurt hetu bhi panchang avashyak hai. prachin kal se aj tak bhartiya panchangon men katipay vibhed bane hue hain. ujjaini ke raja vikramaditya ke shasan kal men acharya varahmihir ne panchang ke bhedon ko samapt karne ka bharpur prayatn kiya tha jo kuch sima tak safal raha. mah ki ganna chandra mas ke adhar par aur varsh ki ganna saur varsh ke adhar par karna unhin ki den hai. jyotishiya siddhant shastron men matbhed hone ke karan vibhinn panchangen men nyunadhik antar dekha jata hai. vidanbna yah hai ki sabhi panchangakarta apne-apne panchangiya siddhanton ko pramanik v uchit mante hain. aise men tithiyon men bhed aur parva tyoharon men ekrupta ki kami svabhavik hai. grih laghav hon panchang : prachin kal men panchang nirman do siddhanton ke adhar par hota tha - surya siddhant aur chandra/arya siddhant. kalantar men mishrit paddhatiyon ka vikas hua, jinmen ukt donon hi siddhanton ke samanvay ka prayas kiya gaya tha. mishrit paddhatiyon ke granthon men acharya ganesh daivagya krit grih laghav granth sarvadhik pramanik hai. shuddh aur pramanik panchang ke nirman men yah grih laghviya panchang paddhati sarvadhik upyukt hai. kaise ho tyoharon men ekrupta? yah ek mahti prashn hai. iske lie tithiyon men ekrupta avashyak hai. panchangon men sabse bari visangti tithi aur nakshatra ke bhogman se sanbandhit hai. tithiyon v nakshatron ke praranbh v samapti kal vibhinn panchangon men alg-alag likhe jate hain. is vibhed ke karan hi vrat-parvon men antar a jata hai. faltah hinduon ke vrat-parva do bar ho jate hain. hinduon ke adhikansh vrat-parva chandramas aur shukla paksh ki tithiyon se sanbaddh hain. jo panchang tithiyon ka aranbh jaldi se ya purva men hi kar dete hain, unke anusar vrat-parva ek din pahle aur jo panchang tithiyon ka aranbh der se batate hain, unke anusar ek din bad ate hain. atah avashyakta is bat ki hai ki sabhi panchangon men tithiyon ke praranbh v samapti kal men ekrupta lane ka prayas kiya jae. navin granthon men uddhrit un siddhanton par vichar nahin kiya jana chahie jo vaidik siddhanton ke pratikul hain. vrat- parvon ke nirnay men dharm sindhu aur nirnay sindhu ka mul mat hi grahan kiya jae. kuch vrat-parvon ka nirnay suryoday kalin tithi ke adhar par aur kuch ka ratri vyapini tithi ke adhar par kiya jata hai. yadyapi udya tithi hi pradhan hoti hai, tathapi shrikrishn janmashtami ka nirnay ratrivyapini ashtami ke adhar par kiya jata hai. purnima vrat, sankasht chaturthi vrat, karak chaturthi vrat adi ka nirnay chandroday kalin tithi (purnima v chaturthi) aur shiv pradosh ka nirnay pradoshkalin (sandhyakalin) trayodshi ke adhar par kiya jata hai. shravni somvar vrat shravni purnima tak shastrochit hai. kaha gaya hai : ''devarthe paurnamasyanto darshatah pitrikarmani.'' arthat vrat-parvadi ka nirnay purnimant mas ke adhar par karna chahie. pitri sanbandhi karya darsh amavasya ko karna uchit hai. is siddhant ke adhar par purnimant mas adharit uttar bhartiya panchangon men nirdisht shravan mah men parne vale shravni somvar ka vrat uchit hai. vahin dusri or amant mas adharit dakshin bhartiya panchangon men shravni purnima ke bad krishnapaksh men shravni somvar ka vrat shreshth faldayi nahin hai aur shastrochit bhi nahin hai. dakshin bhartiyon ka adhik mas sahi hai. siddhantanusar jis amant mas men surya sankranti nahin hoti, usi amant adharit chandra mas ke nam ka adhik mas hota hai. atah pratham mas adhik ya malmas tatha surya sankranti se yukt dvitiya mas shuddh ya nij mas kahlata hai. san 2010 men dinank 15 aprail se 14 mai tak adhik vaishakh mas rahega tatha 15 mai se 12 jun tak shuddh vaishakh rahega, jo sahi hai. uttar bhartiya purnimant mas adharit panchangon men adhik mas se purva aur pashchat shuddh krishn paksh aur shuddh shukla paksh hota hai. yah visangtipurn hai. is varsh 30 march se 14 aprail tak pratham vaishakh krishn paksh aur 15 mai se 27 mai tak dvitiya vaishakh shukla paksh yuktisangat pratit nahin hota hai. adhik mas ke bad ek shuddh mas amant mas panchangon men anukul hota hai, purnimant panchang men nahin. makar sankranti ke bad shishir ritu men, magh shukla panchmi ko shri sarasvati jayanti aur vasant panchmi manai jati hai, jo sahi nahin hai. kunbh sankranti ke bad vasant ritu men, falgun shukla panchmi ko hi shri vasant panchmi parva manana uchit hai, kyonki yah parva vasant ritu ke agaman ka suchak hai. jaisa ki sabhi jante hain, holi purnima se vasantotsav praranbh ho jata hai. atah bhartiya panchangon men holi purnima ke das din purva falgun shukla panchmi ke din hi shri vasantpanchmi likhi jani chahie. panchangon men bahut se vrat-parvon ko shraut-smart ya vaishnava-ninbark athva grihastha-sannyasi ke bhed ke adhar par alg-alag dinon ko pradarshit kiya jata hai. arthat ek hi tyohar do bar ho jata hai, jo uchit nahin hai, kyonki vastav men shraut-smart ya vaishnava-ninbark ka koi suspasht bhed dikhai nahin deta hai. rahi bat sannyasiyon ki. to sannyasi ka panchangon se koi vasta nahin hota. jo sachcha sannyasi hai, vah to vitragi hai. use bhajan ya dhyan karne ke lie shubhashubh muhurt dekhne ki avashyakta nahin hoti. ved vihit laukik karm sannyasi ko akrisht nahin karte hain, islie ved ka netra kahe jane vale jyotish shastra ya panchang ki sachche sannyasi ko avashyakta bahut kam parti hai. tatparya yah ki panchangon men vrat, parva adi ka nirdharan keval grihasthon ko dhyan men rakhakar hi kiya jana chahie. isse vraton, parvon, tyoharon adi men ekrupta aegi. bhartiya panchangon men guru, shani, rahu, ketu adi grahon ke rashi parivartan men ekrupta dikhai nahin deti hai. vibhinn panchang ek ya do dinon ke antar se guru adi grahon ka rashi parivartan pradarshit karte hain. kabhi-kabhi to 10-12 dinon ka antar dikhai deta hai. aise men yah nirnay karna mushkil hota hai ki kis panchang ka grahaspasht sahi hai jabki sabhi panchangon men nirayan grah spasht hi likha jata hai. panchang ke grahaspasht vastavik sthiti men pradarshit nahin kie jate hain. vedhshala (aubjarvetri) ke abhav men panchang ke grah vedhsiddh nahin hote hain. bij sanskar ke madhyam se grahon ko drikkatulya banakar unhin rashi anshon par likha jana chahie, jahan ve vastav men gochar kar rahe hon.
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panchang visheshank  April 2010

is anupam visheshank men panchang ke itihas vikas ganna vidhi, panchangon ki bhinnata, tithi ganit, panchang sudhar ki avashyakta, mukhya panchangon ki suchi v panchang parichay adi atyant upyogi vishyon ki vistrit charcha ki gai hai.pavan sthal namak stanbh ke antargat tirtharaj kailash mansrovar ka rochak varnan kiya gaya hai.

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