गीता के शब्दार्थों का मूल

gita ke shabdarthon ka mul  

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gita ke adhyayon ke vishy: shrimadbhagavadgita ka updesh bhagvan shri krishn ne arjun ko diya tha, use divya drashta shri vyasji ne dekh-sun liya tha. bad men is updesh ko chandon men dhalne ka karya vyasji ne kiya. shri gita ko atharh adhyayon men vishyanusar vibhajit kiya gaya, ve adhyay tatha vishy is prakar se hain- (pahla adhyay): arjun vishad yog, (dusra adhyay) ah sankhya yog, (tisra): karm yog, (chaitha): gyan, karm, sannyas yog (panchvan): karma-sannyas yog, (chatha) ah dhyan yog, (satvan): gyan vigyan yog, (athvan): akshara‘ brahm yog, (navan): rajvidya, rajguhya yog, (dasvan): vibhuti yog, (gyarhvan) ah vishvarup darshan yog, (barhvan): bhakti yog, (terhvan): kshetra-kshetragya vibhag yog, (chaidhvan): gunvy vibhag yog, (pandrahvan): purushottama yog, (solhvan): daivasur sanpd vibhag yog, (satrahvan): shraddhatray vibhag yog, (atharhvan): moksha sannyas yog. gita yug ke shabdarth tatha vatrtaman men unka artha: gita jis yug men kahi gayi, us yug men shabdon ke jo arth prachlit the, ve shabd aj anya arthon ke lie prayog men laye ja rahe hain. udahrntah aj ‘purush’ shabd ka arth ‘nar’ ke artha men prachlit hai. prachin kal (gita kal) men ‘purush’ ka arth ‘chetn tatva’ tha, ‘parmatma’ tha. ‘purushottama’, ‘purushartha’ adi shabd, isi ‘purush’ shabd ke vistar men rache gaye. aj ‘kam’ shabd ‘seksa’ tak simit rah gaya hai, us yug men ‘kam’ sabhi prakar ki kamnaon ka pratinidhitva karta tha. sakam, nishkam adi shabd isi shabda-parivar ke antargata ate the. isi prakar prakriti gun, nirgun, nitya, anitya, vikar, avikar, satya, asatya, maya, brahm, yog, tap, yagya, dharm, bhut adi shabda ke udaharan diye ja sakte hain. ajakal inka arth badal gaya hai. isi ka mul karan hai ki ‘gita’ kisi ki samajh men nahin ati. gita ko janne-samjhne ke liye gita ka shabdakosh (dikshanari) alag se janni paregi. gita men yog ka prayog bahut adhik bar hua hai. sadharntah yog ka arth ‘patanjli ke yog-darshana’ sutra se liya jata hai, arthat ‘chitta ki vrittiyon ko rokna yog kaha gaya hai; gita ke anusar ‘yog’ ka arth hua- ‘mukhya-vishy’ ya ‘prasang’, -arthat us ‘adhyay ka mukhya vishy’. hrishikesh - indriyon ko jitne vala, achyut- sthir svabhav vala. sankhya yog - gita kapil muni ke ‘sankhya darshana’ ko nahin manti, uske anusar vivek aur tark par adharit vishyon ko ‘sankhya yog’ kaha gaya hai. pandit - gita men jisne shastron ka tatparya samajh liya ho, jiska vivek jagrit ho aur jo uchit-anuchit ka nirnay karne men samarth ho, vah pandit hai. nitya-anitya - jo sthir ho, sthayi ho, nash n ho, sada bana rahe vah nitya hai, anitya ka artha viprit hai. amrta-moksh - param atma nitya hai, sthayi hai, amar hai, islie amr atma ka amar parmatma men sama jana moksh hai, iske bad punarjanma nahin hota. sat-asat - sat ka astitva kisi anya par nirbhar nahin hai, jabki asat ka hai. sat kisi kal, sima men bandha hua nahin hai. sada se hai, sada rahega. atma aur parmatma sat hain- asat nashvan hai jaise-sharir. deh-dehi - jo deh men nivas kare, vah dehi hai- deh nashvan hai aur dehi avinashi. jirn sharir - vriddh sharir nahin balki jo apne is janm ke karmon ka fal bhog chuka hai, vah jirn hai. avyakt - sankhya siddhant men atma avyakt hai arthat use indriyon se nahin jana ja sakta hai. dharm - dharm ka arth majhb (rilijn) nahin hai, gita men dharm ko katrtavya, niyam tatha svabhav ke rup men liya gaya hai. pap - kisi bhi fal ki prapti ke uddeshya se kiya katrtavya/karm ya karya pap kahlata hai. vyavsay - ek hi lakshya ki or prayatnashilta, avyavsayikta ka arth hai anek vasnaon se sanchalit danvadol buddhi. dhan, sanpatti, yash, svarg adi, ye sab vasnaon ke alg-alag prakar hain. sthir buddhi - gita men sthir buddhi ki upma gahre samudra se di hai. atmatatva men lin vyakti gahre samudra ki bhanti hota hai, ismen kamnaen uthti, samati rahti hain kintu ve use ashant nahin kartin. moksh - brahmalin avastha ka ashy moksh hai. kamnaon ka tyag karne ke bad punah janm lene ka adhar khatm ho jata hai, yahi moksh hai. satva, raj aur tam gun: ‘satva’ gyan ki avastha hai, ‘raj’ gatishilta hai, ‘tam’ viram ki avastha hai. in tinon avasthaon ka jivan men saman santulan bana rahna hi jivan ke lie ati avashyak hai. anasakti - bina lagav ki avastha, is bhav vala vyakti karma yogi hota hai, arthat karmendriyan karma karen kintu man ka usmen lagav na ho. yagya - havnkund ki sima se nikalakar anasakt bhav se kiya jane vala karm ‘yagya’ kahlata hai. panch mahayagya - 1. brahm yagya- adhyayan karna v karana 2. dev yagya- hom-havan dvara paryavaran ka santuln banaye rakhna, (3) pitri yagya-mrit purvajon ki smriti men dan karna tatha jiviton ki seva-satkar karna (4) nriyagya-atithi, anjane vyaktiyon ka satkar, palan poshan karna, (5) balivaishva dev yagya-pashu-pakshiyon tatha jivon ke liye ann ka ek bhag dena, manav ki jimmevari hai. ahankar ka nash: main kuch nahin karta, mere sabhi karya prakriti ki kriyaon ki pratikriya matra hain. yah bodh ho jane par ahankar aur asakti ka nash ho jata hai. dukhon se chutkara: karm men se katrtabhav nikal dena, janma-marana ke dukhon se chutkara. karma-akarma-vikarma: katrtavya bhav se kiye jane vale karya karm hain. pap-punya ke bhay se karm chorna akarm hai tatha n karne yogya nishiddha karm, vikarm hai. chitta: man, buddhi aur ahankar ke samuchchay ko chitt kahte hain. yogi: apne isht ke prati ekagra hone vala vyakti, brahm rupi agni men svayan ko samarpit karne vala yogi hai. yogagni - atma ke prati ekagrata, ise samadhi bhi kahte hain. tatvagyan - atma-parmatma ka gyan tatva gyan hai, jo vinay aur seva bhav se prapt hota hai. karm yog - nishkam karm, yah indriyon ko jit leta hai arthat gyanendriyan. brahmacharya: avivahit hona nahin hai, balki sanympurvak evan bhay rahit jivan. para-apra prakriti: para ka artha shreshth hai, apra ka arth nimn koti ka. apra prakriti jar hai, vah chetna par nirbhar hai. prakriti aur purush - jar tatva prakriti aur chetan tatva purush hai. dvait evan advaitvad - chetan tatva dvaitvad hai. prakriti aur purush do alag nahin hain, balki jar prakriti chetan purush ka hi ek bhag hai. isi siddhant par vedant ka addhait siddhant tika hai. adhyatm - sabhi jiv brahm ka ansh hain, brahm ki pahchan hi adhyatm vidya hai. adhibhut: nashvan sharir men vas karne ke karan brahm ko adhibhut bhi kahte hain. adhidaiv - devatva bhav brahm ka adhidaiv rup hai. adhiyagya - bhagvan kahte hain ki main brahm hun, jo is sharir men adhiyagya rup men sthit hai. kya shreshth hai - abhyas nirantr yatn hai, abhyas se gyan shreshth hai, gyan se dhyan shreshthatar tatha karmafala ka tyag shreshthatam hai kyonki yah shighra shanti deta hai. gyan-agyan - atma-parmatma ke yatharth ko samjhne ka yatn karna gyan hai, baki sab agyan hai. atma-parmatma ki vyakhya- deh men sthit atma rupi yah tatva parmatma hai. anasakt hone ke karan vah sakshi tatha thik se sammati dene ke karan vah anumanta kahlata hai. poshan karne ke karn vah bharta tatha pap-punyon ka fal bhogne ke karan vah bhokta kahlata hai. apne apko deh ya prakriti se alg-alag samajh lene se vah sarvopri maheshvar aur parmatma kahlata hai. (22-13 adhyay) agla janma: satogun ke karn deh tyagne par uttam lok, yani uttam yoni men, rajogun ki prablta ke samay sharir tyagne par atma karmashil logon ke gharon men aur tamogun ki adhikta ke samay deh tyagne vale murh/nimn yoniyon men janma-lete hain. (15/adhyay-14) moksh marg - jab atma yah samjh leti hai ki satva, raj aur tam prakriti ke ye tinon gun karmon ke karta hain, main un karmon ka matra darshak hun, to atma ko moksh prapt ho jati hai. tinon gunon se mukta: prakriti ke tinon gun deh ke star tak apna karya karte hain, jo vyakti aisa manakar tatasth bana rahta hai, apne man ko vichlit nahin karta, vah mukt hai. sadgati ka upay - kam, krodh aur labh asuri arthat narak ke dvar hain, inka tyag hi sadgati hai. (21/16 adhyay) tin tap - sadvyaktiyon ka pujan, samman, pavitrata, brahmacharya evan ahinsa ka palan hi sharir tap hai. sad vicharon ka kathan, ye vani tap hai. man ki shanti, sanyam, pavitrata mansik tap hai. (14-15-16 adhyay-17) ye kayik, vachik mansik tap hain. shubh karm - yagya, dan, tap adi shubh karm karke, inke fal ki asakti ka tyag karna sarvottama hai. (6 adhyay-18) karm siddhi: karm ka ek karn-deh hai jo adhar hai. dusra karn-atma, jise katrta kahte hain tisra karan indriyan hain, jinhen karan kahte hain. chaitha karan indriyon ki kriyaen hain, jinhen cheshta kahte hain. panchvan karan bhagya hai, jise daiv kahte hain. (14/adhyay-18). karma panchon karnon ke mel ka parinam hai...
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shrikrishn visheshank  August 2016

fyuchar samachar ka vartaman ank bhagvan shrikrishn ko samarpit hai. is ank men bhagvan shrikrishn, unse sambandhit kahaniyan evan shrimad bhagavadgita ke mahatvapurn vyakhyanon ko samavisht kiya gaya hai. mahatvapurn alekhon men sammilit hain: gita ke shabdarthon ka mul evan vartaman, shrikrishn ji ka bhagavad prapti sandesh, sankshipt gitopnishad krishn ki ras lila ya jivan ras lila, karm ka dharm adi. iske atirikt patrika ke anya sthayi stambhon ke antargat anek vicharottejak alekhon ko sanlagn kiya gaya hai.

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