कैसे करें रत्नों की पहचान

kaise karen ratnon ki pahchan  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 3570 |  
ratnon ka rahasyamay sansar adikal se hi manav ke akarshan ka vishay raha hai. vishva ke sabhi deshon men ratn apne vishisht sundr rangon, antrik prabhav, tatha durlabhta ke karan prachinkal se hi anmol samjhe jate hain. inka varnan vedon evan puranon men bhi milta hai. aj ratnon ki kai nai kismen upalabdha hain. prakritik ratnon ki lagbhg 200-250 kismen hain jinmen se kai kismen ek jaisi dikhti hain. badlte hue faishan ke sath vibhinn ratnon ki upyogita bhi badal gai hai. ratn bhugarbh se prapt hote hain. kudarat ki den hai. prakritik ratnon ke do vibhajn kie gae hain. navaratn arthat 9 ratn is prakar hain: hira, panna, pukhraj, nilam, manik, gomed, lahsuniya, moti aur munga. uparatna: navaratnon ko chor anya ratnon ko uparatn kahte hain. jaise- narm manik, firoja, nili, bairuj, tamra, torab, kerva, sfatik tatha kai anya. prakritik ratn hi sahi ratn hote hain tatha hamen keval prakritik ratn hi pahnne chahie. prakritik ratn hi sahi prabhav dal sakte hain. prakritik (asli) ratnon ke atirikta nakli ya chipke hue tatha marka ratna bhi upalabdh hain. û nakli ratna: ye ve ratn hote hain jo manav dvara prayogshala men banae jate hain. ye ratn dikhne men prakritik ratnon ke saman hote hain jinki ratn prayogshala men sahi rup se janch ki ja sakti hai. udahrn: nakli pukhraj, nakli nilam, nakli panna tatha kai anya ratn. ye ratn hamen nahin pahnne chahie kyonki inka ulta prabhav bhi par sakta hai. ranjit ya sansadhit: ismen ratn par ya uske andar rang bhar diya jata hai jisse vah safed se hara, nila ya kisi aur rang ka ban sakta hai. arthat is prakriya men ek ratn kisi aur ratn ka rangrup grahan kar leta hai. in ratnon ko bhi hamen nahin pahnna chahie. chipke hue: is prakriya men asli ratn ki parat katakar nakli ratn ke upar chipka diya jata hai tatha anguthi men jar diya jata hai jo dikhne men asli lagta hai. in ratnon ka bhi sahi prabhav nahin parta. ye kisi ratna visheshagya dvara ratn prayogshala men hi pahchane ja sakte hain. punarnirmit: jin ratnon ke chote va mahin tukron ko pighlakar unhen fir se jora jae ve punarnirmit ratn kahlate hain. yah karya jyadatar jaivik ratnon ke sath kiya jata hai. in ratnon ka bhi koi prabhav nahin hota hai. marka: koi bhi ratn nakli, asli ya kisi anya vastu jaise plastik, kanch jaisi dikhe use marka kahte hain. kairet aur ratti kya hai: kisi bhi ratn ka vajan kairet ya ratti men kiya jata hai. 1 gram = 5 kairet ya 5.5 ratti 1 kairet = 1.1 ratti = 200 migra. 1 ratti = 181 miligram yadi ham kairet men uska 10 pratisht jor den to hamen utni ratti prapt ho jaengi. ek vichar: 200 se adhik prakritik ratnon ki nakli evan marka ratnon ki upalabdhata ka yah matalab hai ki kul mila kar 350 se adhik ratnon ki kismen upalabdh hain jo dikhne men ek saman lagte hain. aise men yadi ap se koi yah kahe ki vah in sab ko ankhon se dekhakar pahchan tatha farka kar sakta hai to kya ap ko yah kuch atpta nahin lagega? kai ratn vyapariyon ne yah mana hai ki anubhav tatha ankhen unhen har bar sahayta nahin detin islie kai bar unhen ratna prayogshala ki madad leni parti hai. ratn prayogshala men bhi ratn visheshagya kisi ratn ki kam se kam 10 bhinna tarikon se janch kie bina kisi nishkarsha par nahin pahunchte. ratnon ka gyan har vyakti ke lie anivarya hai, n keval ratn udyogpti ya jyotish ke lie balki us am insan ke lie bhi jise kisi ratna ki kharidari karni ho. jara sochie ki apko kaisa mahsus hoga jab apko yah pata chala ki jo ratna apne apni mehanat ki kamai se kharida hai vah nakli hai? ratn vigyan ka gyan hone se kisi bhi ratn ko asani se pahchana ja sakta hai. kisi bhi umra, jati, ling ya varg ke log sarlta se ise sikhakar apna vyavsay kar sakte hain aur kisi ratn vishesh ya fir shikshak ya ratna mulyankanakarta ke rup men kam kar sakte hanai. ratn vigyan kya hai? ratnon ke bhautik, rasaynik tatha prakashkiya gunon ke gyan ko ham ratna vigyan kahte hain. har ratn ke kuch bhautik, rasaynik tatha prakashkiya svabhavik tatha nishchit gun hote hain. kisi ratn ke in gunon ko jan kar hi ham kisi thos nishkarsh par pahunch sakte hain aur yah gyat kar sakte hain ki yah ratn kaun sa hai. ise sikhna atyant asan evan avashyak hai. ratn vigyan agar sahi jagah sahi rup se sikha jae to atyant labhkari siddh ho sakta hai. kisi ratn ke bhautik, rasaynik tatha akashiya gunon ko janne ke lie ratn visheshagya ratn prayogshala men vibhinna yantron par uski janch karte hain ratna prayogshala men prayukt hone vale kuch yantra is prakar hain. microscope, dichroscope, immersionscope, s g, hardness plate, pencils, periscope, spectroscope, refractometer, uv lamp tatha kai anya. microscope : microscope men ratna men mahin se mahin chijon ko bara kar asani se dekh sakte hain jinhen ham nangi ankhon se nahin dekh pate. microscope se kisi ratn ko dekh kar ham yah gyat kar sakte hain ki vah sansadhit to nahin hai. kuch ratnon ko dekh kar ratn visheshagya yah andaja bhi laga sakte hain ki ve asli hain ya nakli (synthetic). immersionscope : immersionscope bhi ek tarah ka miscroscope hi hai. isse ham kuch khas chijon ko dekhte hain jinhen miscroscope se achchi tarah nahin dekh pate. sg : sg arthat spacious gravity (ghanatva). har vastu ki ek nirdharit sg hoti hai. sg koi yantra nahin balki ek bhautik gun hai. kisi ratna ki sg jan kar ham yah gyat kar sakte hain ki vah kaun sa ratn hai. hardness pencils/ plate : hardness (kathorta) ek bhautik gun hai. hardness ko ham 1-10 tak ke mapak par mapte hain. har ratn ki apni ek hardness sankhya hoti hai jaise hire ki 10. kam hardness ka ratna jyada hardness vale ratn ko nahin kharonch pata. isi gun ko dhyan men rakhte hue ham andaja laga sakte hain ki yah ratn kaun sa hai. jaise ki hire ko hira hi kharanech sakta hai. yadi ham ise kisi anya ratn se kharonchen to is par kharonch nahin a pati. yadi kharonch a jati hai to iska matlb hai ki yah hira nahin hai. polariscope : palariscipe se ham yah pata lagate hain ki koi ratn singly refractive (sr) hai ya doubly refractive (dr). dichroscope : dichroscope men dikhne vale rangon ki sankhya jan kar ham yah gyat kar sakte hain ki kaun sa ratn ait hai tatha kaun sa kt . spectroscope : koi rang hamen tab dikhta hai jab koi vastu us par parne vale prakash men se us rang ko chor kar baki sabhi rangon ko bahr paravartit kar deti hai. spectroscope isi siddhant par kam karta hai ratna jin rangon ko avshoshit karta hai. spectroscope unhen wavelength scale par darsha deta hai. refractometer : refractometer kisi bhi ratn ke prakash se uski paravartit karne ki nirdharit mapk kshamata ko apne paimane par darshata hai. koi ratn visheshagya kisi ratn ki pahchan n keval ek balki kai yantron ke parinamon ko dhyan men rakhakar hi kisi nishkarsh par pahunchta hai. uprokt mantron ko prayog men late hue vibhinn ratnon ki kaise pahchan ho sakti hain- parhie agle lekh men. -kramshah
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gharelu totke visheshank  January 2006

manushya ka janm svatantra hua hai kintu vah har jagah shrinkhla men abaddh hai. manushya apne har janm men apne karmon ke anurup nakaratmakata athva sakaratmakata ke karan vartaman jivan men achche ya bure din dekhta hai. pira ki matra inhin karmon ke sanchay ke adhar par alg-alag hoti hai. inka prakatya janm ke samay kundali men hota hai jab nau grah uske karmon ke anurup alg-alag bhavon men sthan grahan karte hain. iske alava dashaon ke kram bhi bhavi jivan ki adharshila rakhte hain. yadi dashaon ka kram achcha hota hai to jatak ko jivan men sukh evan samriddhi ki prapti hoti hai anyatha vah dukh jhelne ko badhya hota hai. jyotish men vibhinn prakar ki pira se mukti hetu anek upayon ki charcha ki gai hai. inhin upayon men se ek mahatvapurn upay hai totka. fyuchar samachar ke is mahatvapurn visheshank men vibhinn prakar ki samasyaon se mukti pane hetu samanya, saral evan gharelu totkon se sambandhit mahatvapurn alekh samavisht hain. in mahatvapurn totke ke alekhon men se dhan labh evan khushhali hetu, karj se mukti aur dhan vapsi, mansik tanav dur karne ke lie, pariksha men safal hone ke lie, shighra vivah ke lie, santan prapti ke lie totke adi lekh sammilit hain.

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