जैन धर्म का कर्म सिद्धांत

jain dharm ka karm siddhant  

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jiske dvara jiv partantra kiya jata hai vah karm hai. is karm ke nimitt se hi yah jiv is sansar men anek sharirik, mansik aur agantuk duahkhon ko bhog raha hai. jiv ke sath karmon ka sanbandh anadikal se chala a raha hai. kaha bhi hai - ‘‘jiv aur karm ka anadi sambandh hai jaise ki suvarnapashan men mal-kitt aur kalima. in jiv aur karmon ka astitva svayansiddh hai. ’’arthat jiv ka svabhav ragadirup parinat hone ka hai aur karm ka svabhav ragadirup parinaman karane ka hai. in donon ka astitva bhi ishvar adi karta ke bina hi svatah siddh hai. jis prakar madira ka svabhav jiv ko unmatt kar dene ka hai aur iske pine vale jiv ka svabhav unmatt ho jane ka hai, usi prakar karmoday ke nimitt se jiv ka svabhav ragadvesh rup parinmn karne ka hai aur karm ka svabhav jiv ko vikari bana dene ka hai . jiv ka astitva ‘‘ahan’’-‘‘main’’ is pratiti se jana jata hai tatha karma ka astitva-jagat men koi daridra hai to koi dhanvan hai ityadi vichitrata ko pratyaksh dekhne se siddh hota hai. is karan jiv aur karm donon hi padarth anubhav siddh hain. jiv kis tarah in karmon ko apne sath sambandhit karta hai ? audarik adi sharir namakarm ke uday se sahit hua yah jiv man, vachan, kay rup yogon ke dvara pratisamay karm aur nokarm ke yogya pudgal varganaon ko sab taraf se apni atma ke sath sambandhit kar leta hai arthat man, vachan aur kay ki pravritti se atma ke pradeshon men halachal hota hai, ise yog kahte hain. is yog se hi karmon ka ana hota hai tatha bandh hota hai. jaise ki agni se tapaya hua lohe ka gola jal men dalne par pratisamay charon tarf se jal ko khinch leta hai usi tarh jab yah atma man, vachan aur kay ki pravritti karta rahta hai tabhi tak karmabandh hota rahta hai aur jab yog ki pravritti ko rok leta hai arthat ekagra rup se atma ke dhyan men parinat ho jata hai tab bandh ka bhi nirodh ho jata hai . ek samay men kitne karm atma se bandhte hain ? siddh rashi anantanant praman hain. uske anantven bhag (anant) praman hi karm pudgal is jiv ke sath ek samay men bandhte hain tatha man, vachan, kay ki pravritti men mandta ya tivrata hone se kadachit inse kam ya adhik bhi parmanu bandh jate hain. jaise adhik chikni divar par dhuli adhik lagti hai aur kam chikni divar par kam chipkti hai vaise hi kashayon ki tivrata se adhik aur mandta se kamti rup karm bandhte hain . karm ke kitne bhed hain? samanya karm ek hi hai, usmen koi bhed nahin hai tatha dravya karm aur bhav karm ki apeksha do prakar ho jate hain. usmen gyanavaran adi rup jo pudgal dravya ka pind hai vah dravya karm hai aur us dravya pind men jo fal dene ki shakti hai vah bhav karma hai athva karya men karan ka vyavhar hone se us shakti se utpann huye jo agyan adi athva krodhadi rup parinam hain ve bhi bhav karm kahlate hain. is karm ke ath bhed hain athva inhin athon ke ek sau artalis ya asankhyat lok praman bhed bhi hote hain . ath karmon ke nam- gyanavaran, darshanavaran, vedniya, mohniya, ayu, nam, gotra aur antray in ath karmon ki mul prakritiyan - svabhav hain. gyanavaran, darshanavaran, mohniya aur antray ye char karm ghatiya kahlate hain kyonki ye jiv ke gyan, darshan, samyaktva, virya adi gunon ka ghat karne vale hain . ayu, nam, gotra aur vedniya ye char aghatiya kahlate hain kyonki ghatiya karm ke nasht ho jane par ye charon karm maujud rahte hain fir bhi jali hui rassi ke saman ye jiv ke gunon ka ghat nahin kar sakte hain arthat arihant avastha men jiv ke anant gun pragat ho jate hain . karm ke uday se utpann hua tatha moh, asanyam aur mithyatva se vriddhi ko prapt hua yah sansar anadi hai. is sansar men jiv ka avasthan rakhne vala ayu karm hai. udy men ane vala ayu karm jivon ko un-un gatiyon men rok kar rakhta hai jaise ki ham aur ap manushyayu karm ke uday se manushyagti men ruke hue hain. namakarm narki, tiryanch adi jiv ki nana paryayon ko, audarik, vaikriyik adi shariron ko tatha ek gati se dusri gati rup parinaman ko karata rahta hai. kul ki paripati ke kram se chala aya jo jiv ka acharan hai use gotra kahte hain. jis kul parampara men uncha acharan chala ata hai use uchch gotra kahte hain aur jis kul parampara men nidya acharan chala a raha hai use nich gotra kahte hain. jaise ek kahavat prasiddh hai ki ek siyar ke bachche ko bachapan men sinhni ne pala. vah sinh ke bachchon ke sath hi khela karta tha. ek din khelte huye ve sab bachche kisi jangal men gaye. vahan unhonne hathiyon ka samuh dekha. jo sinhni ke bachche the ve to hathi ke samne daure kintu vah siyar ka bachcha jismen apne kul ke darpokpne ka sanskar tha us hathi ko dekhakar bhagne laga. tab ve sabhi sinh ke bachche bhi use apna bara bhai samajhakar piche laut kar vapas mata ke pas aye aur us siyar ki shikayat ki ki isne hamen aj shikar se roka hai. tab sinhni ne us siyar ke bachche se ek shlok kaha, jiska matlb yah hai ki ab he beta ! tu yahan se bhag ja, nahin to teri jan nahin bachegi . shlok - shurosi kritvidyosi darshaniyosi putrak . yasmin kule tvamutpanno gajastatra na hanyate .. he putra! tu shurvir hai, vidyavan hai, dekhne men sundar hai kintu jis kul men tu paida hua hai us kul men hathi nahin mare jate hain arthat kul ka sanskar avashya paya jata hai, chahe vah kaise bhi vidyadi gunon se sahit kyon n ho. us paryay men sanskar nahin mitta hai. indriyon ko apne - apne rupadi vishay ka anubhv karna vedniya hai. usmen duahkhrup anubhav karna asatavedniya hai aur sukhrup anubhav karna satavedniya hai. us sukh-duahkh ka anubhv karane vala vedniya karm hai . antray karm ko ant men kyon rakha jabki yah ghatiya hai? yah karm samast rup se jiv ke gunon ko ghatne men samarth nahin hai balki nam, gotra aur vedniya in tinon karmon ke nimitt se hi apna karya karta hai. is karan aghatiya ke ant men is antray ko kaha hai. vedniya ko ghatiya karm ke bich men kyon le liya hai ? mohniya karm ke jo bhed rag-dvesh adi hain unke uday ke bal se hi yah vedniya karm ghatiya karmon ki tarah jivon ka ghat karta rahta hai isiliye ise mohniya ke pahle rakha hai arthat yah vedniya karm indriyon ke rupadi vishyon men se kisi men priti aur kisi men dvesh ka nimitta pakar sukh tatha duahkhasvarup sata aur asata ka anubhav karata rahta hai kintu jiv ko apne shuddha gyan adi gunon men upyog nahin lagane deta hai, par svarup men hi lin karta hai. vastav men vastu ka svabhav bhala ya bura nahin hai kintu jab tak rag-dveshadi rahte hain tabhi tak yah kisi vastu ko bhala aur kisi ko bura samjhta rahta hai jaise nim ka patta manushya ko karva lagta hai kintu unt ko priya lagta hai. isse yah nishkarsh niklta hai ki mohniya karmarup rag-dvesh ke nimitt se vedniya ka uday hone par hi indriyon se utpann sukh tatha duahkh ka anubhav hota hai. mohniya ke bina vedniya karm raja ke bina nirbal sainya ki tarah kuch nahin kar sakta hai. in karmon ke bandhan ke kya karn hain tatha inse kaise mukti pai ja sakti hai? gyan-darshan aur unke sadhnon men pratikul acharan, antray, upghat, pradosh, ninhav tatha asadn karne se yah jiv gyanavaran aur darshanavaran karm ka prachurta se bandh karta hai arthat shrutadhar adi gyanijnon ke prati avinit vyavhar karna, yah pratikul acharan kahlata hai. gyan men vighn karna ya gyan ke sadhnon men vighna karna antray hai. man se athva vachan se prashasta gyan men dushan lagana upghat hai. tattvagyan ke vishay men harsh ka abhav hona athva kisi ke dvara moksh ke sadhan ka varnana kie jane par uski prashansa n karke antrang men kalushit bhav karna pradosh hai. jante hue kisi karan se kahna ki yah pustak mere pas nahin hai, is shastra ko main nahin janta hun, is prakar pustak gyan ka aplap karna athva yadi aprasiddha guru se gyan prapt kiya hai to unke nam ko chipakar prasiddh guru ka nam kahna yah ninhav hai. kay aur vachan se anumodna nahin karna ya dusron ke dvara prakashit gyan ka kay se ya vachan se nishedh karna asadan hai. in chah karnon ke hone par gyanavaran aur darshanavaran karmon ka sthiti aur anubhag bandh prachurta se ho jata hai. praniyon par anukanpa karne se, vrat dharan karne men udyami rahne se tatha unke dharan karne se, kshama dharn karne se, dan dene se tatha gurujnon ki bhakti karne se satavedniya karm ka tivra bandh hota hai aur inke viprit acharan karne se asatavedniya karm ka tivra bandh hota hai arthat sabhi jivon par daya bhav karne se, dharm men anurag rakhne se, dharm ka acharan karne se, vrat shil aur upvas ke karne se, krodh nahin karne se, shil-tap aur sanyam men nirat vratijnon ko prasuk vastuon ke dan dene se bal, vriddh, tapasvi aur rogijnon ki vaiyavritti karne se, acharya, upadhyay, sadhu tatha mata-pita aur gurujnon ki bhakti karne se, siddhayatan aur chaitya-chaityalyon ki puja karne se, man-vachn-kay ko saral evan shant rakhne se satavedniya karm ka prachurta se bandh hota hai. praniyon par krurtapurvak hinsak bhav rakhne se, pashu-pakshiyon ke chedn-bhedan, vadh-bandhan aur ang-upang adi ke katne se, unhen napunsak karne se, sharirik aur mansik duahkhon ke utpadan se, tivra ashubh parinam rakhne se, vishy-kashay ki bahulta se, adhik nidra lene se tatha panch paprup acharan karne se asatavedniya karm ka tivra bandh hota hai. praniyon ki hinsa adi men rat rahne vala aur jin pujn adi mokshamarg ke sadhnon men vighn karne vala jiv antray karm ka bandh kar leta hai, jisse vah man ichchit vastu ko prapta nahin kar pata hai tatha jo dusron par krodhadi karta hai aur dusron ke dan, labh, bhog, upbhog tatha virya men vighna-badhaen upasthit karta hai, mithyatva adi ka sevan karta hai, aisa jiv antray karm ko utpann karta hai. is prakar se jo in karmon ke bandh ke karan kahe gaye hain, ve sab karmon ke asrav ke bhi karan hain kyonki karmon ka asrav hone par hi bandh hota hai isilie yahan par karan men karya ke upchar se inko karmabandh ke karan kaha hai. yahan par jo ye karmon ke bandh ke karan kahe gaye hain, ve sab anubhag bandh ki apeksha se kahe gaye hain kyonki pradesh bandh ki apeksha se in niyamon men vyabhichar dekha jata hai. is prakar se karmon ke karya aur unke bandh ke karnon ko samjhkr hamen un-un karnon se bachne ka prayatn karna chahie, jo ki hamare lie sarvatha ahitakar hain. jaise ki gyanavaran, darshanavaran karm ke bandh ke karan, asatavedniya, darshanamohniya, charitramohniya, narkayu, tiryanchayu, ashubh nam, ashubh gotra aur antray karm bandh ke karan sarvatha hamare lie ahitakar hi hain. inke karnon ko to sarvatha chor dena chahie aur satavedniya, shubh ayu, shubh nam, shubh gotra in karmon ke bandh ke karnon ka praranbh men samadar karte hue vishuddha ratnatray ke bal se in karnon ko bhi chorakar apni chaitanya svarup shuddhatm avastha ko prapt karke anant sukhi hone ka hi purushartha karna chahie. samyagdrishti jiv markr bhogbhumi ke tiryanch ho sakte hain, so kaise? yah bhi baddhayushk ki apeksha hai arthat kisi jiv ne pahle tiryanchayu bandh li, punah samyaktva ko prapta kar liya, to vah bhogbhumi men hi jayega-karmabhumi ka tiryanch nahin hoga aur vahan se ayu purn kar marakar vaimanik devon men hi janma lega. apratyakhyanavaran kashay ke uday se hone vale asanyam ki mukhyata se apratyakhyanavrn krodh, man, maya, lobh, manushyagti, manushyagatyanupurvi, manushyayu, audarik sharir, audarik angopang aur vankavrishbhnarachsanhanan, in dash prakritiyon ka bandh ekendriyon se lekr chaturthagun sthanavarti samyagdrishti tak hi hota hai. deshavrati inka bandh nahin kar sakta. age inka bandh nahin hone se sanvar ho jata hai. pratyakhyanavaran ke uday se hone vale asanyam se pratyakhyanavrn krodh, man, maya, lobh in 4 prakritiyon ko ekendriyon se lekr sanytasanyat gunasthan deshavrati jiv tak bandhte rahte hain. age inka bandh nahin hone se sanvar ho jata hai. yahan par tray hinsa ka tyag ho jane se panch sthavar jivon ka adya, panch indriya aur man ka avash, in 11 prakar ke asanyam se hi in karmon ka asrav bandh hota hai, aisa samjh lena. pramad ke nimitt se bandhne vali asatavedniya, arti, shok, asthir, ashubh aur ayashaskirti ye chah prakritiyan hain. ye chathe gunasthan tak hi bandhti hain. age inka sanvar ho jata hai. devayu ka bandh pramad hetuk bhi hai aur apramad hetuk bhi hai. atah iska satven gunasthan tak bandh hota hai. chathe gunasthan tak pramad ka sadbhav hai. satven men apramatta avastha hai. jin karmon ka matra kashay ke nimitta se hi bandh hota hai, un karmon ka kashay ke abhav men sanvar ho jata hai. pramadadik ke nimitt se rahit yah kashay tivra, madhyam aur jaghanya aise tin bhed se tin gunasthanon men bant jata hai. purushved sanjvalan krodh, man, maya aur lobh in panch prakritiyon ka navmen gunasthan tak bandh hota hai, age inka bandh ruk jata hai. panch gyanavaran, chakshudarshan adi char darshanavaran, panch antray, yashaskirti aur uchchagotra in 16 prakritiyon ka dashven gunasthan tak bandh hota hai, age nahin hota. dashven gunasthan ke ant men kashay ka purnataya abhav ho jane se age keval yog ke nimitt se hi bandh hota hai. isilie gyarhven, barhven aur terhven gunasthan men matra yog ke nimitt se satavedniya ka asrav hota hai. arhant avastha men satavedniya ka jo bandh hai, vah ek samay ki sthiti vala hai. arthat karm ke ane ka samay aur jane ka samay ek hi hai, vah rukta nahin hai. chunki sthiti aur anubhag kashay se hote hain aur dashven gunasthan ke age kashay nahin hain. terhven gunasthan tak yah ek satavedniya bandhti hain. age iska abhav ho jane se chaidhven gunasthan ke ayogkevli abandhak kahlate hain. yahi karan hai ki terah gunasthan tak bandhak hone se sayogkevli arhant dev bhi kathanchit bandhak mane gaye hain.
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bhagvan mahavir visheshank  April 2016

fyuchar samachar ka is mah ka visheshank jain dharm ko samarpit hai. jain dharm ko prachin dharmon men se ek mana jata hai. is visheshank ke antargat jain dharm ke sabhi pakshon ko pesh karne ka prayas kiya gaya hai. is visheshank ke andar ati vishisht lekhon ko jagah di gai hai. in lekhon ke atirikt jyotish, vastu evan ankshastra adi ke lekh bhi purva ki bhanti hi sammilit kie gaye hain. jaise- bhukhandon ka shrenikaran, di san, vastu sammat plaet, sheyar bajar men mandi-teji, grah sthiti evan vyapar, kuch upyogi totke, ap aur apke prem sambandh, balidan ki pratimurti nirja bhanot adi. inke atirikt jain dharm par prakashit lekh is prakar hain- jain dharm itihas ki najar men, jain dharm ka karm siddhant, jain shiksha evan sandesh, ahinsa men sthirta ke prerak bhagvan mahavir, chaturmas - kya karen aur kya n karen, jain dharm ke pramukh parva adi.

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