जैन शिक्षा एवं संदेश

jain shiksha evan sandesh  

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kaivalya prapti ke pashchat mahavir ne apne siddhanton ka prachar praranbh kiya. samaj ke kulin varg ke logon ne bhi unki shishyata grahan ki. magadh samrat ajatashatru ke samay men unke mat ki mahti unnati hui. ahinsa, satya, astey, aprigrah tatha brahmacharya- che panch mahavrat hain, jinka vidhan bhikshuon ke palnarth kiya gaya. inka vivaran nimnalikhit hai: 1. ahinsa yah jain dharm ka pramukh siddhant hai, jismen sabhi prakar ki ahinsa ke palan par bal diya gaya hai. ahinsa ke purn palan ke lie nimnalikhit acharon ka nirdesh hua hai- ;paddh irya samiti - sanyam se chalna taki marg men kit-patangon ke kuchlne se koi hinsa n ho jae. ;papaddh bhasha samiti: sanyam se bolna taki katu vachan se kisi ko kasht n pahunche. ;papapaddh eshna samiti: sanyam se bhojan grahan karna, jisse kisi prakar bhi kire-makoron ki hatya na ho sake. ;paaddh adan-nikshep samiti- kisi vastu ko uthane tatha rakhne ke samay vishesh savdhani bartna jisse jiv ki hatya n ho jae. ;addh vyutsarg samiti: mal-mutra ka tyag aise sthan par karna, jahan kisi jiv ki hinsa hone ki ashanka n rahe. 2. satya ismen sadaiv satya bolne par jor diya gaya. iska acharan nimnavata hai- 1. hansi men bhi jhuth nahin bolna chahie. 2. lobh hone par maun rahna chahie. 3. bhay hone par bhi jhuth nahin bolna chahie. 4. soch-vichar kar bolna chahie. 5. krodh ane par shant rahna chahie. (3) astey iske antargat nimnalikhit baten batai gai hain- 1. bina agya kisi ke ghar men pravesh n karna. 2. bina kisi ki anumti ke uski koi bhi vastu n lena. 3. yadi kisi ke ghar men rahna ho, to bina uski agya ke uski kisi bhi vastu ka upyog n karen. 4. guru ki agya ke bina bhiksha men prapt ann ko grahan n karna. 5. bina anumti ke kisi ke ghar men nivas n karna. 4. aprigrah ismen kisi bhi prakar ki sanpatti ekatrit n karne par jor diya gaya hai, kyonki sanpatti se moh aur asakti ka uday hota hai. 5. brahmacharya uparyukt charon siddhant jain mat men pahle se chale a rahe the. lekin brahmacharya ka vidhan mahavir ne jora. iske antargat bhikshu ko nimnalikhit nirdesh die gae hain- 1. shuddh evan alp bhojan grahn karna. 2. kisi stri ko n dekhna. 3. kisi stri se baten n karna. 4. kisi stri se sansarg ki bat kabhi n sochna. 5. aise ghar men n jana, jahan koi stri akeli rahti ho. gautam buddh ke saman mahavir ne bhi vedon ki apaurusheyta svikar karne se inkar kar diya tatha dharmik evan samajik rurhiyon aur pakhandon ka virodh kiya. unhonne atmavadiyon tatha nastikon ke ekantik maton ko chorakar bich ka marg apnaya, jise ‘anekantavad’ athva ‘syadvad’ (saptabhangi siddhant) kaha gaya hai. iske anusar kisi vastu ke anek dharm hote hain tatha vyakti apne simit buddhi dvara keval kuch hi dharmon ko jan sakta hai. purn gyan to ‘kevlin’ ke lie hi sanbhav hai. mahavir punarjanm tatha karmavad men bhi vishvas karte the, parantu ishvar ke astitva men unka vishvas nahin tha. jivan ka charam lakshya kaivalya ki prapti hai. jain mat bauddh tatha vedant ke hi saman agyan ko hi bandhan ka karan manta hai. iske karan karma jiv ki or akarshit hone lagta hai. ise ‘astrav’ kahte hain. karm ka jiv ke sath sanyukt ho jana bandhn hai. jaise tap lohe se tatha jal dudh se sanyukt ho jata hai, usi prakar karm jiv se sanyukt ho jata hai. pratyek jiv apne purva sanchit karmon ke anusar hi sharir dharan karta hai. moksh ke lie unhonne nimnalikhit tin sadhan avashyak batae: 1. samyak darshana: jain tirthankron aur unke updeshon men drirh vishvas hi samyak darshan ya shraddha hai. uske ath ang bataye gaye hain- sandeh se dur rahna, sansarik sukhon ki ichcha ka tyag karna, sharir ke moh rag se dur rahna, bhramak marg par na chalna, sahi vishvason par atl rahna, jain siddhanton ko sarvashreshtha samjhna, sabke prati prem ka bhav rakhna, adhure vishvason se vichlit n hona. inke atirikt laukik andhvishvason, pakhandon adi se dur rahne ka bhi nirdesh diya gaya hai. 2. samyak gyan: jain dharm evan uske siddhanton ka gyan hi samyak gyan hai. samyak gyan ke panch prakar bataye gaye hain- indriyon dvara prapta gyan, shruti arthat sunakar prapta kiya gaya gyan, avdhi arthat kahin rakhi hui kisi bhi vastu ka divya athva alaukik gyan, manah paryay arthat anya vyaktiyon ke man ki baten jan lene ka gyan tatha kaivalya athva purn gyan, jo keval tirthankron ko hi prapt hai. 3. samyak charitra: jo kuch bhi jana ja chuka hai aur sahi mana ja chuka hai, use karyarup men parinat karna hi samyak charitra hai. iske antargat bhikshuon ke lie panch mahavrat tatha grihasthon ke lie panch anuvrat bataye gaye hain. sath hi sath sachcharitrata evan sadachar par vishesh bal diya gaya hai. in tinon ko jain dharm men ‘triratna’ ki sangya di jati hai. triratnon ka anusaran karne se karmon ka jiv ki or bahav ruk jata hai, ‘jise ‘sanvr’ kahte hain. iske bad pahle se jiv men vyapt karm samapt hone lagte hain. is avastha ko ‘narjara’ kaha jata hai. jab jiv se karm ka avshesh bilkul samapt ho jata hai, tab vah moksh ki prapti kar leta hai. is prakar karm ka jiv se sanyog bandhan tatha viyog hi mukti hai. moksha ke pashchat jiv avagaman ke chakra se chutkara pa jata hai tatha vah anant gyan, anant darshan, ananta virya tatha anant sukh ki prapti kar leta hai. inhen jain shastron men ‘ananta chatushtya’ ki sangya pradan ki gai hai. is prakar mahavir ki shikshayen purnataya naitik thin, jinka uddeshya atma ki purnata tha. jain dharm ka prachar mahavir ke jivnkal men hi unke mat ka magadh tatha samipavarti kshetron men vyapak prachar ho gaya. magadh naresh ajatashatru tatha uske uttaradhikari udyin ne iske prachar men yogdan diya. mahavir ne apne jivnkal men ek sangh ki sthapna ki jismen 11 pramukh anuyayi sammilit the. ye gandhr kahe gaye. inhen alg-alag samuhon ka adhyaksh banaya gaya. mahavir ki mrityu ke bad keval ek gandhr sudharman jivit bacha, jo jain sangh ka unke bad pratham adhyaksh bana. nand rajaon ke kal men bhi jain dharm ki unnati hui hogi, kyonki ve bhi jain mat ke viruddh nahin lagte. chandragupt maurya ke samay men bhi is dharm ka vikas hua, kyonki jain paranpra ke anusar usne jain acharya bhadrabahu ki shishyata grahan kar li thi. uske sath vah apne jivan ke uttarakal men rajya tyagakar dakshin men shravnbelgola (maisur) tapasya karne chala gaya tha aur vahin isne ‘sallekhn’ (anna-jal tyag) dvara nirvan prapt kiya. bhadrabahukrit ‘jain kalp sutra’ se pata chalta hai ki mahavir ke 20 varshon bad sudharman ki mrityu hui tatha uske bad jambu 44 varshon tak sangh ka adhyaksh raha. shvetanbar evan diganbr antim nand ke samay ke sambhutvijy tatha bhadrabahu sangh ke adhyaksh the. unke shishya sthulabhadra hue. isi samay magadh men 12 varshon ka bhishn akal parne par bhadrabahu apne shishyon sahit karnatak chale gaye. kintu kuch anuyayi sthulabhadra ke sath magadh men hi ruk gaye. bhadrabahu ke vapas lautne par magadh ke sadhuon se unka gahra matbhed ho gaya jiske parinamasvarup jain mat is samy (lagabhag 300 isa purva) shvetanbar tatha diganbar namak do sanpradayon men bant gaya. jo log magadh men rah gaye the, ve shvetanbar kahlae. ve shvet vastra dharan karte the. bhadrabahu aur unke samarthak, jo nagn rahne men vishvas karte the, digambar kahe gaye. prachin jain shastra nasht ho jane ke karn chaturth shatabdi isa purva men patliputra men jain dharm ki pratham mahasbha ayojit ki gai kintu bhadrabahu ke anuyayiyon ne ismen bhag nahin liya. parinamasvarup donon sampradayon men matbhed barhta gaya. patliputra ki sabha men jo siddhant nirdharit kiye gaye, ve shvetanbar sampraday ke mul siddhant ban gaye. jain dharm ke donon sampradayon ka mukhya antar is prakar hai- 1. shvetambar mat gyan-prapti ke bad bhojan grahan karne men vishvas karta hai, kintu diganbron ke anusar adarsha sadhu bhojan grahan nahin karta. 2. shvetanbar sampraday ke log shvet vastra dharan karte hain tatha vastra dharn ko ve moksh ki prapti men badhk nahin mante. iske viprit diganbr matanuyayi purnataya nagn rahkr tapasya karte hain tatha vastra dharn ko moksh ke marg men badhk mante hain. 3. shvetanbar sampraday ke log prachin jain granthon - ang, upang, prakirnak, mulsutra, vedsutra adi ko pramanik manakar unmen vishvas karte hain kintu diganbar inhen manyata nahin pradan karte. 4. shvetanbar mat ke anusar stri ke lie moksh ki prapti sanbhav hai, kintu diganbar mat iske viruddh hai. kalantar men jain dharm ka kendra magadh se pashchimi bharat ki or sthanantrit ho gaya. jain sahitya men ashok ke pautra samprati ko is mat ka sanrakshaka bataya gaya hai. vah ujjain men shasan karta tha. atah yah jain dharm ka ek pramukh kendra ban gaya. jainiyon ka dusra pramukh kendra mathura men sthapit hua, jahan anek abhilekh, pratimayen, mandir adi milte hain. kushan kal men mathura jain dharm ka ek samriddha kendra tha. gujrat tatha rajasthan men jain dharm 11vin tatha 12vin shatabdi men adhik lokapriya raha. is prakar jain dharm samast bharat men fail gaya. apne sangathan ki utkrishtata tatha anuyayiyon ki kattarata ke karn ye aj bhi bharat men apna astitva surakshit rakhe hue hain. jain dharm ki den yadyapi jain dharm kuch hi bhagon tak simit raha, tathapi bharat ke sanskritik jivan men iska yogdan mahattvapurn raha. jainiyon ki vishesh den sahitya evan kala ke kshetra men rahi. jain vidvanon ne vibhinn kalon men lok bhashaon ke madhyam se apni kritiyon ki rachna karke jain sahitya ke vikas men mahatvapurn yogdan diya. prakrit, apabhransh, kannar, tamil, telugu adi bhashaon men jain sahitya milte hain. iske atirikta kuch jain granth sanskrit mane bhi milte hain. is prakar pradeshik bhashaon ka vikas jainiyon ne kiya. prachin bhartiya kala evan sthapatya ko viksit karne men bhi jainiyon ka yogdan mahatvapurn hai. hastalikhit jain granthon par khinche hue chitra purva madhya-yugin chitrakla ke sundr namune hain. mahabharat, gujrat, urisa, rajasthan adi se anek jain-mandiron, murtiyon adi ke utkrishta namune milte hain. urisa ki udygiri pahari se anek jain gufayen milti hain. khajuraho, rajasthan, saurashtra men bhavya jain mandir prapt hote hain. in sabse spasht hai ki bhartiya kala ko samriddhashali banane men jain dharm ne ullekhniya yogdan diya hai. jain dharm ke logon ne ahinsa evan sadachar ka prachar kiya tatha sanymit jivan vyatit karne ka updesh diya. yadi aj bhi in siddhanton ka anukaran kiya jae, to apsi bhedbhav evan dharmik kalh bahut sima tak dur ho jayega tatha sansar men shanti, bandhutva, prem evan sahishnuta ka samrajya sthapit hoga. is prakar ki shikshayen kuch anshon men adhunik yug men bhi saman rup se lagu hoti hanai. sandesh samaj men daya, paropkar, ahinsa tatha jivan men tyag, sahnshilta, tap evan sanym- bhagvan mahavir ne manushya jati ko yahi sandesh diya. unhonne manv-sanskriti ko ahinsa, tyag tatha tap ka jo vardan diya, vah anek jatiyon ke lie adarsha raha hai. ahinsa ko itne vyapak rup men sabse pahle jain dharm ne hi grahn kiya. jain dharm ne nimnalikhit baton par bal diya: 1. jagat anadi hai aur iske sabhi padarth nashvar hain. 2. atma moksh prapti ka ek sopan hai aur jiv hi atma hai. atma shuddh aur sharir ashuddh hai. mithya darshan, avrti aur pramad ke karn hi atma sharir men bandhti hai. 3. man atma se bhinn hai. 4. moh-maya aur karmon ke prati akarshan hi karma-bandhan ka mul karan hai. 5. karmon se mukti pana hi parm dhyey hai. 6. mukt atma hi shreshth hai. 7. samyak shraddha, samyak gyan aur samyak achrn- ye triratn bhi moksha-prapti ke sadhan hain. 8. jain dharm ke anusar manushya ka lakshya kaivalya pad (moksha) ki prapti hai. purva sanchit evan vartaman karmon se chutkara pana hi moksh hai. iski prapti ke lie sansar ka tyag karna avashyak hai. jain muniyon ke anusar jiv apne purusharth dvara hi mukti prapt karta hai. ahinsa ko param manne vale jain sadhu athva shravak pani bhi chankr pite hain. jo jain bilkul shakahari hote hain, ve uthte-baithte, chalte-firte is bat ka vishesh dhyan rakhte hain ki kahin jiv ki hinsa n ho. ve sandhya se hi purva bhojan kar lete hain. kitanuon ke pravesh ko rokne ke lie jain sadhu har samay mukhapattika bandhe rakhte hain. jain dharm ke anuyayi apne tirthankron ko pujya mante hain. unka aisa vishvas hai ki unke tirthankr parm-dham men nivas karte hain. is shreshth pad ko unhonne apne tap ke bal par hi prapt kiya hai. jain mandiron men inhin tirthankron ki murtiyon ki puja hoti hai. tirth ka arth hai-bhavsagr ko par karna arthat jisne ise par kar liya ho, use tirthankr kahte hain.
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bhagvan mahavir visheshank  April 2016

fyuchar samachar ka is mah ka visheshank jain dharm ko samarpit hai. jain dharm ko prachin dharmon men se ek mana jata hai. is visheshank ke antargat jain dharm ke sabhi pakshon ko pesh karne ka prayas kiya gaya hai. is visheshank ke andar ati vishisht lekhon ko jagah di gai hai. in lekhon ke atirikt jyotish, vastu evan ankshastra adi ke lekh bhi purva ki bhanti hi sammilit kie gaye hain. jaise- bhukhandon ka shrenikaran, di san, vastu sammat plaet, sheyar bajar men mandi-teji, grah sthiti evan vyapar, kuch upyogi totke, ap aur apke prem sambandh, balidan ki pratimurti nirja bhanot adi. inke atirikt jain dharm par prakashit lekh is prakar hain- jain dharm itihas ki najar men, jain dharm ka karm siddhant, jain shiksha evan sandesh, ahinsa men sthirta ke prerak bhagvan mahavir, chaturmas - kya karen aur kya n karen, jain dharm ke pramukh parva adi.

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