भारतीय पर्व-त्योहार

bhartiya parva-tyohar  

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prashna: nimnalikhit mukhya bhartiya hindu parva nirnay hetu tithi, nakshatra, suryodyast adi se sanbandhit adhar v niyam kya hain? vistrit varnan karen. raksha bandhan, janmashtami, ganesh chaturthi, dashhra, karva chaith, ahoi ashtami, dhanteras, narak chaturdashi, dipavli, govardhan v annakut parva, bhaiya duj, lohri, makar sankranti, mahashivratri, holika dahan v dhulaindi. hamare samajik tatha rashtriya jivan men parvon ka vishesh mahatva raha hai. aj bhi sabhi dharm evan jatiyon men vibhinn parvon ko bari umang se manaya jata hai. aj ki is vichar-goshthi men uprokt prashnanusar parvon ka parichay diya ja raha hai, jinka samy-samay par ayojan kiya jata hai, jo prachin kal se bhartiya samaj men prachlit aur manya rahe hain. pratyek parva ki utpatti, usko manane ki vidhi, uska mahatva aur usse sanbandhit katha par dharmik tatha rashtriya drishti se vichar kiya gaya hai. raksha bandhn yah parva shravan shukla purnima ko manaya jata hai. ismen aprahnavyapini tithi li jati hai. yadi yah do din ho ya donon hi din n ho to purva leni chahie. yadi us din bhadra ho to uska tyag karna chahie. isi din shravni parva bhi manaya jata hai. bhadra men shravni aur falguni donon nishedh hai kyonki shravni se raja ka aur falguni se praja ka anisht hota hai. ek bar devta aur danvon men barah varsh tak yuddh hua par devtagan vijyi nahin hue tab brihaspati ne sahmti di ki yuddh band kar dena chahie. yah sunakar indrani ne kaha ki main kal indra raksha bandhungi, uske prabhav se inki raksha hogi aur yah vijay prapt karenge. shravan shukla purnima ko vaisa hi kiya gaya aur indra ke sath sanpurn devta vijyi huye. usi din se yah raksha bandhan ka parva manaya jata hai. shravni parva ke sanbandh men prasiddh hai ki isi din shravnkumar apne netrahin mata-pita ke lie jal lene gaye vahin par hiran ki tak men raja dasharath chipe the. unhonne jal se ghare ke shabd ko hiran ka shabd samajhakar tir chor diya, jisse shravnkumar ki mrityu ho gayi. yah sunakar mata-pita atyant dukhi hue. tab dasharath ji ne unko ashvasan diya aur apne agyan men kiye apradh ki kshama yachna karte hue shravni ko shravnpuja ka sarvatra prachar kiya. us din se sanpurn sanatni shravan ki puja karte hain aur ukt raksha sutra unhin ko arpan karte hain. janmashtami yah parva bhadrapad mas krishn paksh ashtami tithi ko manaya jata hai. bhagvan shrikrishn ka janm bhadrapad krishn ashtami budhvar ko rohini nakshatra men ardharatri ke samay vrishabh ke chandra men hua tha. adhikanshtah uprokt baton men apne-apne abhisht yog ka grahan karte hain. shastranusar iske shuddha v viddha do bhed hain. uday se udayaparyant shuddha aur tadgat saptami ya navmi se viddha hoti hai. shuddha ya viddha bhi sama, nyuna, adhika bhed se tin prakar ki ho jati hai aur is prakar atharah bhed ban jate hain. parantu siddhant rup men tatkalavyapini (ardharatri men rahne vali) tithi adhik manya hoti hai. vah yadi do din ho ya donon hi din n ho to (saptami viddha ko sarvatha tyagkr) navmi viddha ka grahan karna chahie. bhagvan shrikrishn ke janm ke samay bhadrapad mas, krishnapaksh, ashtami tithi, rohini nakshatra budhvar madhya ratri ka samay tha. janm ke samay vrishabh lagn men shani-chandra, kark men guru, sinh men surya-budh, kanya men rahu, tula men shukra, makar men mangal tatha min men ketu sthit the. shrignesh chaturthi bhadrapad shukla chaturthi ko madhyahn ke samay bhagvan shri ganesh ji ka janm hua tha. is parva men madhyahnavyapini tithi li jati hai. yadi yah do din ho ya donon din n ho to ‘matrividdha prashasyate’’ ke anusar purvaviddha leni chahie. is din agar ravivar ya manglvar ho to yahan ‘mahachturthi’ ho jati hai. is din chandra darshan karne se jhutha arop lag jata hai. iske nivaran hetu syamantak ki katha shravan karna avashyak hai. dashhra (vijya dashmi) ashvin shukla dashmi ko shravan nakshatra ke sahyog se vijya dashmi (dashhra) ka parva manaya jata hai. ashvin shukla dashmi ke sayankal tara udit hone par ‘vijykal’ rahta hai. yah samast karya siddh karta hai. ashvin shukla dashmi purvaviddha nishiddh mani gayi hai. parviddha shuddh aur shravnyukt suryoday vyapini sarvashreshth hoti hai. isdin bhagvan shriramchandra ji ne ravan se yuddh men vijay prapt ki thi. isilie yah tithi vijyadshmi ke parva ke rup men manayi jati hai. is din shami vriksh v ashyantak vriksh ki tatha astra-shastron ka pujan kiya jata hai. karva chaith (karak chaturthi) yah parva kartik krishn ki chandrodayavyapini chaturthi ko manaya jata hai. visheshakar yah parva saubhagyavti striyan ya usi varsh men vivahi hui larkiyan karti hai. yah parva saubhagya barhane vala hota hai. ahoi ashtami yah parva kartik krishn ashtami ko manaya jata hai. sandhya ke samay divar par ath koshtak ki ek putli banai jati hai samip hi sahi v uske bachchon ki akriti banai jati hai. jamin par chaik purakar kalash sthapan kar divar par ashtami ka pujan kiya jata hai. dudh-bhat ka bhog lagaya jata hai. yah parva santan ki prapti v santan ki ayu vardhan ke lie manaya jata hai. dhan trayodshi (dhan ters) yah parva kartik krishn trayodshi ko pradoshavyapini tithi men manaya jata hai. is din kisi patra men mitti ka dipak rakhakar til ke tel se purn kar navin rui ki bati se purit dakshin disha ki or mukh karke dip-dan kiya jata hai jisse yamraj prasann hote hain. yah din devtaon ke vaidya dhanvantri ki jayanti ke rup men bhi manaya jata hai. narak chaturdashi (rup chaturdashi) kartik krishn chaturdashi ki ratri ke ant men jis din chandroday ke samay chaturdashi tithi ho us din yah parva manaya jata hai. yadi yah tithi do din tak ho to chaturdashi ke chaturth prahar men yah parva manana chahie arthat snan adi karna chahie. dipavli lok prasiddhi men prajjvalit dipkon ki pankti laga dene se ‘dipavli’ aur sthan-sthan par mandal bana dene se ‘dipmalika’ ban jati hai. atah is rup men ye donon nam sarthak ho jate hain. brahmapuran ke anusar kartik ki amavasya ko ardharatri ke samay lakshmi maharani sadgrihasthon ke makan men jahan-tahan vicharan karti hanai. islie apne makanon ko sab prakar se svachch, shuddh aur sushobhit karke dipavli ya dipmalika banane se mata lakshmi prasann hoti hain aur unke nivas sthan men sthayi rup se nivas karti hain. iske alava varsha kal ke jale, makri, dhul-dhamase aur durgandhadi dur karne hetu bhi kartiki amavasya ko dipavli manana hitkari hota hai. yah amavasya pradoshkal se lekar ardharatri tak rahne vali shreshth hoti hai. yadi vah adhi rat tak n rahe to pradoshavyapini lena chahie. yah parva bhagvan shriram ke lanka vijay ke pashchat ayodhya lautne ke upalakshya men bhi manaya jata hai. govardhan v annakut parva yah parva dipavli parva ke dusre din arthat kartik shukla paksh pratipda ko manaya jata hai. is parva ke sanbandh men shrimadbhagavat mahapuran men ullekh milta hai. yah parva bhagvan shrikrishn ke avtirn hone ke pashchat dvapar yug se aranbh hua. is din bhagvan govardhan ki kachchi-pakki rasoi banakar puja ki jati hai. bhaiyya duj (yam dvitiya) kartik shukla dvitiya ko yah parva manaya jata hai. hemadri mat se yah dvitiya madhyahnavyapini purva viddha uttam hoti hai. smart matanusar ath bhag ke din ke panchven bhag ko shreshth mana jata hai tatha skand ke anusar aprahnavyapini adhik achchi hoti hai. is parva ko ‘‘kalam dan puja’’ bhi kahte hain. is din bhai apni bahin ke ghar bhojan karte hain. isilie yah ‘‘bhaiyyaduj’’ ke nam se vikhyat hai. is din yamraj, chitragupt v yamuna ka pujan kiya jata hai. is din bhai apni bahin ke (sagi, mama, kaka, bua, mausi v mitra ki bahin) ghar bhojan karta hai to uski ayu ki vriddhi hoti hai. yadi is din yamuna nadi ke kinare par bahin ke hath ka bhojan karta hai to bhai ki ayu vriddhi ke sath din ke saubhagya ki bhi raksha hoti hai. lohri yah parva 14/15 janvri ko surya ke makar rashi men pravesh ke ulakshya men panjab v hariyana men lohri ke rup men manaya jata hai. yah parva ek din purva manaya jata hai. bich men agni jalakar usmen til gur, mishthann adi dalakar sarvatra khushiyan manai jati hain tatha achchi fasal hone ki prarthana ki jati hai. til se vyanjan, gur tatha makke ki khilen paraspar mil bant kar khai jati hai. makar sankranti parva bhartiya jyotish shastra men barah rashiyan mani gai hain. unmen se ek ka nam ‘makr’ rashi hai. makar rashi men surya ke pravesh karne ko hi ‘makar sankranti’ kaha jata hai. vaise to yah sankranti prati mah hoti rahti hai. par makar aur kark rashiyon ka sankraman vishesh mahatva ka hota hai. makar sankranti surya ke uttarayan hone par tatha kark sankranti surya ke dakshinayan hone ko kahte hain. iske alava mesh aur tula ki sankranti ki ‘‘vishuvt’’ vrish v sinh, vrishchik v kunbh ki vishnupdi’’ aur mithun, kanya, dhanu aur min ki ‘shadshityann’ sangya hoti hai. ayan ya sankranti ke samay vrat, dan ya japadi karne ke vishay men hemadri ke mat se sankraman hone ke samay pahle aur bad ki 15-15 ghariyan, brihaspati ke mat se dakshinayan ke pahle aur uttarayan ke piche ki 20-20 ghariyan tatha deval ke matanusar pahle aur piche ki 30-30 ghariyan punyakal ki hoti hain. inmen vashishth ke mat se vishuv madhya ki vishnupdi aur dakshinayan ke pahle ki tatha shadshitimukh aur uttarayan ke piche ki uparyukt ghariyan punyakal ki hoti hain. vaise samanya matanusar sabhi sankrantiyon ki 16-16 ghariyan punyadayak hain. yah visheshta hai ki din men sankranti ho to pura din, ardharatri se purva ho to us din ka uttararddh, ardharatri se piche ho to ane vale din ka purvardh, thik ardh ratri men ho to pahle aur bad ke 3-3 prahar aur us samay ayan ka parivartan bhi ho to tin-tin din ka punyakal hota hai. is parva ko uttar pradesh ke purvi jilon men ‘‘khichri’’ parva ke nam se manate hain. mahashivratri parva yah parva falgun mas ki krishn paksh ki chaturdashi ko manaya jata hai. pratyek tithi ke adhipti hote hain. chaturdashi tithi ke adhipti bhagvan shiv hain. atah yah parva unki hi ratri men manane se is parva ka nam shivratri sarthak hota hai. ishan sanhita ke anusar falgun krishn chaturdashi ko nishith kal (ardharatri) men ‘‘shivlingtyoksutah koti suryasamaprabhah‘‘ vakya ke anusar jyotirling ka pradurbhav hua tha, is karan yah mahashiv mani jati hai. siddhant rup men aj ke suryoday se kal ke suryoday tak rahne vali chaturdashi shuddha aur anya viddha mani gayi hai. usmen bhi pradosh (ratri ka aranbh) aur nishith (ardharatri) ki chaturdashi ki jati hai. skandpuran men bhi ardharatri ko parva hetu mana gaya hai. agar yah trisprish (trayodshi, chaturdashi v amavasya) ho to adhik uttam hoti hai. ismen bhi ravivar v manglvar ka yog (shiv yog) aur bhi adhik achcha hota hai. holika dahan v dhulaindi holikautsav (holika dahn) hamara rashtriya v samajik tyohar hai. yah falgun mas ke shukla paksh ki purnima ko manaya jata hai. jis prakar shravni (rakshabandhn) ko rishi pujan, vijya dashmi (dashhra) ko devi pujan tatha dipavli ko lakshmi pujan ka mahatva hai thik usi prakar holika dahan v pujan ka bhi mahatva hai. holika dahan men purvaviddha pradosh vyapini purnima li jati hai. yadi vah do din pradosh vyapini hai to dusri leni chahie. yadi pradosh kal men bhadra ho to uske mukh ki ghari tyag kar pradosh men holika dahan karna chahie. bhadra men holika dahan karne se jansmuh ka vinash hota hai. pratipda, chaturdashi aur bhadra tatha din men holi jalana sarvatha tyajya hai. yadi pahle din pradosh ke samay bhadra ho aur dusre din suryast se pahle purnima samapt hoti ho to bhadra ke samapt hone ki pratiksha kar suryoday ke purva holi jalani chahie. yadi pahle din pradosh n ho aur n ho to bhi ratri bhar bhadra rahe (suryoday se purva n utre) aur dusre din suryast se pahle purnima samapt hoti ho to aise avasar par pahle din bhadra ho to bhi bhadra ke puchchakal men holika dahan karna chahie. yadi pahle din ratri bhar bhadra rahe aur dusre din pradosh ke samay purnima ke uttararddh maujud bhi ho to bhi us samay yadi chandra grahan ho to aise avasar men pahle din bhadra ho tab bhi suryast ke piche holi jala dena chahie. yadi dusre din pradosh ke samay purnima ho aur usse pahle bhadra samapt hoti ho kintu chandragrahan ho to uske shuddh hone ke pashchat snan karke holi jalani chahie. yadi falgun do ho to shuddh mas (dusre) falgun men purnima ko holika dahan karna chahie. holi kya hai? kyon jalayi jati hai? aur ismane kiska pujan hota hai? iska anshik samadhan pujn-vidhi aur katha sar se hota hai. holi ka parva rahasyapurn hai. ismen holi, dhundha, prinad aur smarashanti to hai hi inke atirikt is din navanneshti yagya bhi sanpann hota hai. dhulaindi yah parva holika dahan ke dusre din chaitra krishn pratipda ko manaya jata hai. is din abir-gulal v rangon ki fag hoti hai.
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vighnaharta ganesh visheshank  September 2013

fyuchar samachar patrika ke vighnaharta ganesh visheshank men ganpti ke prakatya ki katha, ganpti pujan vidhi, uchchisht ganpti pujan, ganpti ke vibhinn svarup, ganpti ke vibhinn rupon ki puja se duahkh nivaran, ganpti ke pramukh tirth sthalon ka parichay, sarvapratham ganpti pujan kyon? adi gyanavardhak alekh sammilit kie gae hain. iske atirikt ek janbaj ke duahkhad ant ki satyaktha, tarkasur ka vadh, ank jyotish ke rahasya evan duahkh nivarak shani ki bhumika jaise rochak alekh vishesh jankari se yukt to hain hi sath hi inko parhne se ap anandit bhi mahsus karenge.

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