भारतीय कैलेंडर

bhartiya kailendr  

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bharat ek bahusanskritik desh hai. vibhinn kshetron men bhinna-bhinn bhashaen prachlit hain aur isi prakar bhinna-bhinn samay manak paddhatiyan prachlit hain. vishva men gregoriyan kailendar ka prayog kiya jata hai. lekin bharat ka rashtriya kailendar saur kailendar hai. iske atirikt bhinna-bhinn kshetronmen dharmik prayog ke lie anek saur evan chandra kailendar prachlit hain. kali 5107, shak 1928, sanvat 2063 rashtriya kailendar ke anusar 22 march, 2006 ko praranbh ho raha hai. lekin uttar bharat men visheshtah prachlit chaitradi kailendar ka praranbh chaitra shukla pratipda tadnusar 30 march, 2006 ko ho raha hai. aie dekhte hain vibhinn kailendron ki ganna ka adhar kya hai aur ve varsh men kab-kab praranbh hote hain. geragoriyan kailendar men sayan varsh ;jtavachapabans lmantaddh ko varsh mana gaya hai jiska man 365 din 5 ghante 48 minat 46.08 sekand arthat 365.2422 din hai jabki bhartiya kailendron men surya aur chandra ki ganna ke karan nakshatra varsh ;aipkmtmans lmantaddh ko varsh mana gaya hai jo 365 din 6 ghante 9 minat 12.96 sekand arthat 365.2564 din ka hota hai. yah sayan varsh ;jtavachapabans lmantaddh se lagabhag 20 minat 26.88 sekand bara hota hai. nakshatra varsh men taron ko sthir manakar prithvi purva sthiti par a jati hai. rashtriya kailendr: yah kailendar saur mas par adharit hai. bharat sarkar ne ise 22 march 1957 se lagu kiya. ismen pratham mah chaitra 22 march ko praranbh hota hai aur yah mah 30 din ka hota hai, lekin adhivarsh ;smanch lmantaddh men 21 march ko praranbh hokar yah 31 din ka hota hai. kyonki surya vrish se kanya tak 30.5 din se adhik samay men rashi par karta hai atah vaishakh se bhadra tak sabhi mah 31 din ke evan ashvin se falgun tak sabhi mah 30 din ke hote hain. is kailendr men adhivarsh ;smanch lmantaddh gregoriyan kailendar ke anusar hi rakha gaya hai. rashtriya kailendar ke alava bharat men anya anek saur evan chandra kailendar prachlit hain. in kailendron men mah surya ki sankranti se praranbh hota hai aur mah men 29 se 32 din ho sakte hain. panjabi/uriya kailendr: is paddhati men mah surya ki sankranti ke din praranbh hota hai. yadi sankranti suryoday se pahle ho jati hai to mah pahle din praranbh ho jata hai. ismen varsh surya ki mesh sankranti se praranbh hota hai. tamil kailendr: is kailendar men yadi sankranti suryast se pahle ho to mah sankranti ke din praranbh hota hai, anyatha agle din. varsh surya ki mesh sankranti se praranbh hota hai. malyali kailendr: ismen tamil kailendar ke anusar hi yadi sankranti aprahn se pahle ho to mah sankranti ke din se praranbh hota hai, anyatha agle din se. din ke 18 ghati vyatit hone ke samay se shuru hone vale bhag ko aprahn kahte hain. is kailendar men mahon ke nam rashiyon ke namon ke anusar hi rakhe gae hain evan varsh pravesh surya ke sinh rashi men pravesh se hota hai. bangali kailendr: yadi sankranti suryoday aur madhya ratri ke bich hoti hai to mah agle din se praranbh hota hai, anyatha usse agle din se. is kailendar men varsh surya ki mesh sankranti se praranbh hota hai. nepali kailendr: is kailendar men yadi surya sankranti madhyahn ke bad hoti hai to mah usi din se praranbh hota hai, anyatha uske pahle din se. varsh mesh sankranti ke sath vaishakh mah se praranbh hota hai. chandra mas mukhyatah do prakar ke hote hain - amavasya ko samapt hone vala amant aur purnima ko samapt hone vala purnimant. chandra mas men do paksh hote hain - shukla evan krishn aur har paksh men 15 din hote hain. mah ke nam nakshatron ke nam par rakhe gae hain jin par surya gochar karta hai. jaise chitra nakshatra ke nam par chaitra, vishakha ke nam par vaishakh adi. chaitradi kailendr: yah purnimant kailendar hai aur uttar bharat men iska prachalan sarvadhik hai. yah mukhyatah uttar pradesh, bihar, madhya pradesh, rajasthan, himachal pradesh evan jammu-kashmir men prachlit hai. hariyana, panjab aur urisa men bhi iska kuch-kuch prachalan hai. ismen mah suryodykalin tithi ke anusar krishn paksh ki pratipda se praranbh hokar purnima ko samapt hota hai. varsh chaitra mah ke madhya shukla pratipda se praranbh hota hai. kartikadi kailendr: is kailendar men mah suryodykalin shukla pratipda se praranbh hokar amavasya ko samapt hota hai. yah mukhyatah gujrat, maharashtra, karnatak v andhra pradesh men prachlit hai. ismen varsh ka praranbh kartik shukla pratipda se arthat dipavli ke agle din se hota hai. muslim kailendr: muslim kailendar men mah chandra darshan se aur tithi suryast se shuru hoti hai. vyavhartah mah chandra darshan ke agle din se shuru hota hai. is kailendar men varsh keval 354 din ka hota hai atah varsh har varsh 11 din pahle shuru ho jata hai aur is prakar 33 varshon men muslim kailendar ke lagabhag 34 varsh vyatit ho jate hain. is prakar vibhinn kailendar nimn tarikhon par shuru honge: rashtriya kailendar -22 march, chaitradi -30 march, kartikadi -23 aktubar, panjabi/uriya -14 aprail, tamil -14 aprail, malyali -17 agast, bangali -15 aprail, nepali -13 aprail, muslim -31 janvri.
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paravidyaon ko samarpit sarvashreshth masik jyotish patrika  March 2006

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