वास्तु विद्या एवं कला की प्राचीनता एवं आधुनिक काल में उपयोगिता

vastu vidya evan kala ki prachinta evan adhunik kal men upyogita  

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manav ki bhavan sambandhi avashyakta manav sabhyata jitni hi prachin hai. vastu kala ka vikas manav sabhyata ke vikas ka itihas hai. vastu shabd ka arth matra bhavan nirman nahin hai iska kshetra bahut vyapak hai. vastu shabd gramon, puron, durgon, pattanan ,put bhednon , avas bhavnon evan niveshya bhumi ke arthon men bhi prayukt hota hai. vastu vidya ke supratishthit granth manasar ke anusar dhara hamrya, bhavan yan tatha paryank in charon ka hi bodh vastu shabd se hota hai. ‘maymt’ ke anusar vastu shabd ka abhipray bhumi prasad, yan evan shayan se hai. hamrya shabd bhi ati vyapak arthayukt hai. dae. acharya ke vastu vishvakosh men kaha gaya hai ki hamrya men prasad, mandap, sabha, shala, prapa tatha rang sabhi sammilit hain. unke shabdon men vastu kala men sabhi prakar ke bhavnon -dharmik, avas yogya, sena yogya tatha unke upabhavan evan upangon, pratyangon adi ka pratham sthan hai. purnivesh, udyan rachna, panya(vyaparik )sthanon, pot sthanon adi ka nirman, marg yojna, setu vidhan, gopur vidhan, dvar nivesh, toran vinivesh, parikha khanan, vapranirman, prakar vidhan, bal bhramyojna, bhitti rachna, sopan nirman bhi vastu shastra ka pradhan ang hai. vastu kala men bhavan, farnichar, bhushan rachna evan vastra rachna bhi sammilit hai. murti nirman kala vastu kala ki sahyogi kala hai. vastu kala, bhavan nirman, athva pur nivesh kre prarambhik kritya jaise ki bhumi chayan, bhu pariksha, shanku sthapan, diksammukhya evan ayadi nirnay bhi vastu shastra ke ang hain. vastu shabd ka antarnihit arth hai yojna. yahi iska marm hai. kisi bhi rachna, srishti athva nirman ke purva yojna ka hona avashyak hai. samrangan sutradhar adhyay 2 shlok 4 men kaha gaya hai ki jagat ki srishti ke purva brahma ne vastu ki srishti ki. vastu shastra ka pradhan vishay bhavan kala, yantra kala, kashth kala, bhushan kala, asan, sinhasan adi ka vidhan tatha murtikla- chitrakla hai. bhartiya vastu vidya ke vishay men parsi braun ka mat hai ki bhartiya vastu kala ki sarvapramukh visheshta uski adhyatm nishtha hai. pattharon men bhartiya atma ka sakshatkar karna bhartiya vastu kala ki pramukh visheshta rahi hai. purvi evan pashchimi vidvanon ke gaveshnatmak tatha anusandhanatmak granthon tatha indoloji men bhartiya vastu kala tatha prastar kala ka vikas maurya kal se, samrat ashok ke rajya kal se hona siddh kiya gaya hai. parantu thoda sa bhi vichar karne se spasht ho jata hai ki samrat ashok dvara nirmit vibhinn laton, stup, chaitya, tatha shila lekhon ka ekmatra uddeshya bauddh dharm ka prachar tatha sanrakshan tha. vastav men to ashok ke kal se purva sindhu ghati ki sabhyata ke samay se hi desh men shiv puja prachlit thi. ashok dvara nirmit stambhon par ankit char pashuon sinh, bail, ashva, tatha hathi ka sambandh shiv pratima tatha shakti se raha hai. ismen sandeh karne ka n koi sthan hai n koi avasar. upalabdh pramanon ke adhar par bhartiya vastu vidya ka janm vedanag shatak visheshakar jyotish evan kalp se hua hona siddh hota hai. bhartiya vastu kala ko sthapit karne men dharm ki mahti bhumika rahi hai. iska mul karan bhartiya vastu kala ka dharm ashrit hona hi hai. dharmik sanskaran, yagyaon evan pujaon ke sambandh men bhumi chayan, bhu sanskar, bhumi ke man aur nap-jokh jise unman kaha jata hai, evan vedi rachna adi adi avashyakiya angon ke sambandh men jo nirdesh tatha vivaran bataye gaye hain ve hi kalantar men vastu vidya ke sutrapat men sahayak hue. vastu vidya ki unnati tatha pragti kisi ek acharya dvara pravart nahin hai. yadi ham vibhinn vastu granthon mane ullikhit samast acharyon ke namon ka avlokan karen to vastu shastra ke 25 acharyon ke nam sammukh ate hain. bhrigu, atri, vashishth, vishvakarma, may, narad, nagnajit, vishalaksh, purandra athva shakra, brahma, kumar, nandish athva shanbhu, shaunak, garg, vasudev, anuruddh, shukra, brihaspati, manu ka ullekh matsya puran men milta hai. parashar, kashyap, bharadvaj- brihatsanhita men ullikhit hai tatha prahlad, agastya tatha markandey ka ullekh anyanya granthon men upalabdh hota hai. hamari shastra nirman parampara men pratyek shastra ka karta koi n koi dev, rishi athva muni bataya gaya hai, brahma evan shiv ko vibhinn shastron evan vidyaon ka pravartak hone ka sarvadhik shrey prapt hai. prayah hi vastu vidya ke mul pravartakon men do nam vishesh rup se ullikhit hote hain ek vishvakarma tatha dusre may. vishvakarma ka varnan devtaon ke sthapit (arkitekta) ke rup men sanatan kal se hota aya hai. inhan ath vasuon men se ek vasu kaha jata hai. vastu vidya unhen svayan brahma se prapt hui thi. vishvakarma ko bharat ke uttar bhag men vastu kala tatha vastu vidya ke pratham pravartak tatha acharya ke rup men svikar kiya gaya hai. anya pravartakon men shambhu, garg, atri, vashishth, parashar, brihadrath, tatha vasudev ka nam ata hai. may asuron ki vastu kala ke mul pravartak acharya mane jate hain. vastu ki dakshin bhartiya parampara men 15 acharyon 1. brahma 2. tvashtra 3. may, 4. matang 5. bhrigu 6. kashyap, 7. agastya 8. shukra 9. parashar 10. nagnajit 11. narad ,12. prahlad 13. shakra, 14 brihaspati tatha 15. mansar ke nam vishesh rup se ullikhit hote hain. bhartiya vastu vidya ka sthir rup vedangon ke samay men sampann hua. puranon tatha agmon man unka vikas prarambh hua. vastu kala tatha vastu vidya ka ullekh anekanek granthon, puranon, mahakavyon, sanhita granthon men bahutayat se prapt hota hai. udaharan ke liye matsya puran men vastu vidya par ath aghyay hain. in adhyayon men n keval vastu shastra ke atharah acharyon par prakash dala gaya hai varn bhavan yojna evan rachna ke adharbhut nirman, ‘stambhon ’ ka vivechan bhi kiya gaya hai. navtal lakshan, pithika lakshan, ling lakshan men prastar kala tatha pratima nirman ka vivechan hai. prasad vastu mandap lakshan tatha prasad varnan mane kahi gai hai. skand puran ke maheshvar khand tatha vaishnav khand men vastu vidya ke varnan diye gaye hain. is puran men mahanagar sthapan, svarnashala, rath nirman, sthapit nirdesh vivah mandap tatha chitra karm ke vivaran diye gaye hain. garud puran men manav tatha devtaon, sabhi ke liye upyukt bhavnon ke atirikt durg nivesh, udyan, bhavan tatha pur nivesh par vivechan hai. agni puran men varnit vastu kalash ka mukhya vishay murti kala se sambandhit hai. is vishay par agni puran men terah adhyay hanai jabki vastu kala par matra tin adhyay. agam granthon men kamikagam vastu vidya ka pratinidhi granth kaha ja sakta hai anyatha to karnagam, suprabhedagam, vaikhansagam men bhi vastu sambandhi paribhashik vivechan prapt hota hai. brihatsanhita, tantra, hayshirsh panchratra, vishnu dharmottar puran, hari bhakti vilas tatha hemadri adi acharyon ke pratishtha granth ullekhniya hain. puranon men matsya puran, agnipuran, bhavishya puran ke atirikt garud puran, skand puran, vayu puran, narad puran, brahmand puran, bhavishya puran, ling puran man bhi vastu vidya ke siddhaton ka ullkh hua hai. in sab ke atirikt bauddh granthon men bhi vastu vidya sambandhi nirdesh prapt hote hain, kabhi kabhi to abhas hota hai ki mano vastu vishayak kisi granth ka adhyayan kiya ja raha ho. pali pitkon men svayan bhagvan buddh ke vastu vidya sambandhi pravachan upalabdh hote han. ‘chulla vag, vinay pitak, mahavagga’ adi pali granthon ke adhyayan se yah tathya suspasht ho jata hai. agni puran adhyay 39 men tantra shastra adharit 25 granthon hayshirsh tantra, trailokya mohan tantra, vaibhav tantra, paushkar tantra, prahlad tantra, gagrya tantra, galav tantra, nardiya tantra, sanprashan tantra, shandilya tantra, vaishvak tantra, satya tantra, saunak tantra, vasishth tantra, gyansagar tantra, svayambhu kapil, tikshrya tantra, naraynik tantra, atrey tantra, narsinh tantra, anand tantra, arun tantra, bauddhayan tantra tatha arsh tantra ka ullekh hua hai. hayshirsh panchratra men vastu vidya ka praudh vivechan milta hai. vastutah vastu shastra ke siddhanton ka pratipadan karne vale bhartiya sahitya ka akar itna vishal hai ki suvidha ke liye use do vibhagon men banta ja sakta hai. ek arkitekcharal vakrs arthat vastu shastriya granth arthat vah granth jinman avikal rup se keval vastu shastra ka vivechan kiya gaya ho. dharmik granthon jaise ki ved vedang (kalp tatha jyotish), puran, agam tatha dharmik sanskar paddhatiyon, puja paddhatiyon, pratishtha paddhatiyon ka samavesh karne vale granthon, niti vishayak granthon yatha shukrra niti, kautilya arth shastra adi ka samavesh karne vale granthon ko nan arkitekcharal vakrs arthat avastu shastriya granthon ki shreni men rakha ja sakta hai. vastu shastriya granthon men vishva karma prakash ,samragann sutradhar, sutradhar mandan, vastu ratnavli, vastu pradip adi granthon ka samavesh hota hai. inmen bhi samragann sutradhar, mayamatam, mansar vastu vidya ka bahu pratishthit granth hai. vastu kala men samay samay yugadharmanusar parivartan hote rahe han. vastav men pratyek kal ki apni-apni pramukh visheshtayen hoti hain. yahi visheshtayen parivartan ka adhar banti hain. vaidik kal yogopasna ka kal tha. tab tak murti puja ka prachar nahin ho paya tha. atah puja vastu - vedi nirman tatha yagya shala tak hi vastu vidya ka vikas ho saka. aranyakon tatha upnishdon men upalabdh pramanon ke adhar par spasht hota hai ki kalantar men hinsa samanvit tatha bahu dravya sapeksh yagya karmakand ke sthan par shiv puja, vishnu puja tatha tridev puja ki parampara viksit hui. shiv puja tatha vishnu puja ki aviral dhara uttar se dakshin tak bahne lagi. shiv bhakti tatha vishnu bhakti, in do dharmik pragtiyon ke prasar se pratima sapeksh desh ke kone-kone men shiv mandiron tatha vishnu mandiron ki sthapna tatha unka nirman prarambh hua. parinamasvarup in pauranik dharmon ke prachar ne vastu kala ko charam unnati ke shikhar par pahuncha diya. atah spasht hai ki bhartiya vastu kala tatha vastu vidya ka charmotkarsh dharm ashrit raha hai. samanvit rup men artha-shastra men varnit vastuvidya, brahman granthon men kahi gai vastu vidya, mahakavya kalin vastu vidya tatha bauddh kalin vastu vidya ke upalabdh tathyon ke adhar par isa purviya vastu vidya ka svarup nimn prakar se kaha ja sakta hai. 1.vastu purush vikalpan 2. bhumichayan tatha parikshan 3. dvar sansthapan 4 vriksharopan 5. daru (kashtha) aharan 6. vastu pad 7.vastu vidya tatha jyotish 8. vastu fal 9.sthapit 10 pashan kala tatha murti nirman 11. shal bhavan 12. shanku sthapan 13. hast ke vibhinn map 14.stambhadi map vyavastha 15. grih dravya jaise ki patthar adi 16. bhavan bhusha 17. prasad rachna tatha 18. vastu vidya ki shailiyan. vastu vidya ke mulbhut siddhanton men kahin kahin par vimatya dikhai padta hai. yadyapi rigved kal men grih nirman ke avasar par jo pratishtha sanskar ya samaroh kiye jate the ve aj bhi hote han. us samay vastu puja ko vastu nirman ka avashyak ang mana jata tha. aj bhi vastu puja, bhumi pujan, ninv pujan adi ke rup men nirman ka avashyak ang hai. vastu puja, bhumi chayan, stambh puja, dvar puja adi vastu vidya ke prarambhik siddhant rigved kal se hi prachlit hain. fir bhi yadi vastu kala tatha vastu vidya ke mulbhut niyamon men vimatya karnon se hai. sarvapratham karan vastu shailiyon ki bhinnata hai. vastu vidya ka janm vedangashatak ke jyotish evan kalp se hone ke karan agmon evan puranon ki paramparaon se, desh evan sthan bhed se shailiyon ke do rup viksit hue the. kalatanr men kshetriya visheshtaon ke adhar par anek shailiyan pushpit pallavit hui tatha in anek shailiyon ko bhi vastu shastra men sthan mila. udaharan ke liye nagar (uttari) tatha dravid (dakshin) shaili ke atirikt besar nam se tisri ek aur shaili prasiddh hai. raja bhoj ki rachna ‘samrangan sutradhar’ men vavat, bhumij, lat adi bahusankhyak shailiyon ka vivechan prapt hota hai parantu mukhya shailiyon men nagar tatha dravid shaili ki hi pradhanta hai. yahi do shailiyan bhartiya vastu nirman men prachlit hain. yah tathya vastu vidya ke puratan granthon yatha mansar, mayamat, samrangan sutradhar, vishvakarmiya shilp, sankladhikar, anshumdbhed, brihatsanhita, matsaru, agni, skand, bhavishya, vishnudharmottar, agam granthon, arth shastra, puja paddhatiyon tatha niti granthon adi ke adhyayan se spasht ho jata hai. vishvakarmaprakash men uttarapath ki vastu vidya ka varnan hua hai tatha vishvakarmiya shilp man dakshinapath ki vastu vidya ka varnan hua hai. in granthon men ek hi vastu parampara n hone se dravid vastu vidya ke pratinidhi granthon men mandiron evan bhavnon ke varg tatha nam bhi nagar vastu vidya ke granthon se alag hain. mukhyatah vastu kala tatha vastu shastra panch bhutane akash, agni, vayu, jal tatha prithvi ke naisargik gunon ke samuchit tatha prabhavshali upyog ka shastra hai. vastu vidya ke samast siddhant inhin panchbhuton ke irdagird ghumte hain. bahudha ham nishkarshon ko siddhant manne ki bhram bhari bhul kar baithte hain jo uchit nahin hai. vartaman samay men vastu kala ke adholikhit niyam evan siddhaton ke anupyogi pratit hone ki prishth bhumi men parivesh parivartan mukhya karan hai. vastu vidya ke mul siddhanton men sabse adhik upekshit siddhant jyotish sambandhi siddhant hai. bhavan nirman men ay, vyay, ansh, tara, rashi ka vichar ab nahin kiya jata. sambhavataya yah iski prishth bhumi men vishvakarma prakash ka vah mat hai jismen bataya gaya hai ki 32 hath arthat 48 fit (16 gaj athva mitr) se adhik lambai ke bhavnon men ay vichar avashyak nahin hai. jin bhavnon ka jirnoddhar hona ho unmen, ghas fus se nirmit bhavnon (jhopdiyon ) men bhi ayadi vichar avashyak nahin hai. varnamala ke aksharon par adharit varg vibhajan bhi aprayojniya siddh ho raha hai. bhavan nirman samagri men, karigron ke aujaran men bhi samay ke anusar parivartan aya hai hast sutra gai -gujri kala hai. vastu kala ke niyamon men mahatvapurn antar bhavan nirman men upyogi yantron ke atirikt bhavan nirman samagri ke karan bhi hai. prachin evan madhya kalin bharat men bhavan nirman men lakdi ke kashth ka prayog bahutayat se hota tha. chaton men lakdi ki kadiyan athva dhanniyan padti thi. lakdi ke nakkashidar stambh v darvaje banaye jate the. vastav men iski prishthabhumi men kashth ki sulabh upalabdhata ke atirikt hinduon ka yah vishvas bhi tha ki gharon ke nirman men pattharon ka upyog nahin kiya jana chahiye. is tathya ke samarthan men kamikagam ka vakya ‘shilastambhan shilakudatrayan naravase n karyet’ uddhrit kiya ja sakta hai. vartaman samay men kashth ka upyog nyunatinyun ho raha hai. bhavan nirman men patthar ka upyog saundarya, rakhrkhav men sahjta, sulbhta ke karan badh chuka hai. avasiya bhavnon men kashth ka upyog mukhya dvaron tak simit ho chala hai. vastu kala ke nirdeshon men upyog men li ja rahi kashth ki sankhya sambandhi nishedh ab anupyogi hai. adhunik takniki gyan se plaivud ka nirman ho raha hai jismen kashth ke naisargik doshon ko dur kar sanskarit kashth ka nirman kiya jata hai. talaghar ya tahkhane ka nirman vastu vidya men anukul nahin mana gaya hai. talaghar ko ek vishal khaddhe ka pratirup manne ke karan yah dharna balvti rahi hai ki talaghar adhikansh jivan shakti ka avshoshan kar leta hai. parantu adhunik bahumanjili bhavnon men talaghar ek avashyak nirman ke rup men samne aye hain. in bhavnon ke talghron men vahan parking to samanya upyog hai. iske atirikt inka upyog vyavsayik karyon ke liye bhi hota hai. vastu vidya ke prachin nirmanon men bahumanjili bhavnon ke nirman men pratyek tal ki unchai ko kramshah nyun karte jane ka vidhan diya gaya hai. bhutal se pratyek khand par unchai ko kam karne ka siddhant to ab vartaman men purnataya vilupt ho chuka hai. astu kuch bhi ho, sthan tatha samay ke anusar vastu vidya tatha kala men kitne bhi parivartan kyon n ayane vastu ke adharbhut siddhant shashvat hain, panch tatvon, akash, prithvi, jal, agni tatha vayu ke naisargik rup se upyog par adharit hain atah unmen parivartan ki avashyakta nahin hai. inmen prithvitatva guruta se, akashiya tatva dhvani se sambandhit hai. bhari vastuon, bhari bharakam nirman men dakshin kshetra ko prathmikta di jati hai. jal tatva halka hai. bharat men ek ke atirikt sabhi nadiyon ka udgam uttar disha se hai tatha jal pravah bhi uttar disha se hi anya dishaon men hai. jal ke naisargik pravah ke anurup hi uttar disha men jal prabandhan ke liye vastu granthon men uttar disha nirdharit ki gai hai. vayu tatva ki disha uttara-pashchim hai. vayu ka samuchit pravah is disha men hone ke karan khadyannon ka bhandaran is disha men apekshit bataya hai. isi prakar agni tatva ki pradhanta dakshin purva men hone se is sthan men bhojan pakane, agni evan agney padarthon ke upyog ka pravdhan bataya gaya hai. manovaigyanik upchar ke liye, man ko prafullit rakhne ke liye, satvik vicharon ke liye mukhya dvar par ganesh pratima lagane, udyan, hans, saras, adi ke chitra lagane ka vidhan hai. panchatatvon ka santulit samanvay hi vastu ki avashyakta hai.
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  October 2013

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