भद्रा क्या है ?

bhadra kya hai ?  

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bhadra samanyatah vishti karan ko kahte hain. jin tithiyon ke purvarddh athva uttararddh men vishti namak karan vidyaman ho, us tithi ko ‘bhadrakrant’ tithi kaha jata hai. atah bhadra ki jankari multah karan gyan par adharit hai. vaidik kal ke vikas men panchang nirman ki prakriya purva men ekang ‘tithi’ matra par adharit thi. nakshatra samavesh se yah ‘dvayang’ bana . kramshah dhire-dhire yog, karan, tatha var ko grahan karke panchang ki sarthakata siddh hui. panchang ke panch angon ki upyogitanusar tithiyon ke prayog se vrat, parva tatha anushthan dvara dhan prapti evan kalyan ka marg prashast kiya gaya. sapt varon men dainik karya-kalap nivritti se svasthya aur ayushya vriddhi sanbhav hui. nakshatranusar sanskarik paramparaen nibhane se papon se nivritti tatha vibhinna yog-rog nivaran ki dharna pusht hui. isi prakar vibhinna karnon ka uchit prayog karya-siddhidayak kaha gaya jo ‘karn’ shabd ki vyakrnik utpatti se bhi prakat hota hai. bav, balav, kaulav, taitil, gar, vanij aur vishti ye sat karan char sangyak hain arthat pratyek mah men pratyek ki ath avrittiyan purn hoti hain. iske atirikt char sthir karn bhi hain jo mas men keval ek bar hi ate hain. inki tithiyan aur unke bhag nishchit (sthir) hain. inke nam kramshah shakuni, chatushpad, nag tatha kistughn hain. krishn paksh ki chaturdashi ke pashchat bhag men shakuni, amavasya ke purvarddh men chatushpad aur uttararddh men nag tatha shukla paksh ki pratipda ke purvarddh men kistughn namak karan hota hai. is prakar kul gyarah (11) karan prachlit hain. bhadra ki sthiti: bhadra ki sthiti ke vishay men muhutrta chintamni ke shubhashubh prakaran shlok 41 ‘shukle purva.......’ ke anusar shukla paksh ki ashtami aur purnima ke purvarddh tatha ekadshi aur chaturthi ke uttararddh men bhadra hoti hai. isi prakar krishn paksh ki tritiya aur dashmi ke uttararddh men tatha saptami aur chaturdashi ke purvarddh men vishti karan (bhadra) hota hai. (gyatavya hai ki is siddhant ke viprit vedang kalin tatha jain granthon men karan purvarddha-uttararddh ke sthan par din evan ratri ke adhar par die gae hain) bhadra ka svarup: ‘muhutrt ganpti’ ke anusar ‘‘pura devasure yuddhe shanbhu kayadvinirgata. daityaghni rasbhasya cha vishtirlogulini kramat. sinh griva shavarurha saptahasta krishodri. amraiah shravan prante sa niyukta shivagyayaah.. mahograya vikralasya prithudanshtra bhayanka. karyagni bhuvmayati vahni jvala samakula..’’ arthat purvakal men dev-daityon ke yuddh men mahadev ji ke sharir se bhadra utpann hui. daityon ke sanhar hetu gardabh ke mukh aur lanbi punch vali yah bhadra tin pairon vali hai. sinh jaisi gardan, shav par arurh, sat hathon tatha shushk udar vali, mahabhyankar, vikralmukhi, prithudrishta tatha samast karyon ko nasht karne vali agni jvala yukt yah bhadra devtaon ki bheji hui prakat hui hai. bhadra ka nivas: vibhinn granthon ke anushilan se gyat hota hai ki vibhinn rashiyon men chandrama ke sancharavash bhadra ka nivas kramshah svarg, patal tatha prithvi lok par hota hai. kintu vibhinn granthkaron men is vishay men katipay matbhed bhi hain, jinka vivaran nimnanusar hai- - adhikadhik vidvanon ke anusar kramshah mesh, mithun tatha vrishchik rashiyon men chandrama ke rahne vali bhadra ka vas svargalokan men, kanya, tula, dhanu tatha makar ke chandrama men iska vas patal (nag) lok men tatha kark, sinh, kunbh aur min ke chandra samay men iska vas bhulok (prithvi) men hota hai. svarg men nivas karne vali bhadra ‘udhrvamukhi’, patal vasini ‘adhomukhi’ tatha prithvi vasini bhadra ‘sammukh’ kahlati hai. kunbh karkadvaye mritrye svargejbjejjatraye'lige. stri dhanurjukan kre'dho bhadra tatraiv tatfalam.. muhutrt chintamni.. - dvitiya paksh ke samarthakon dvara mesh, vrish, kark tatha makar ke chandrama men svargalok, sinh, vrishchik, kunbh tatha min ke chandrama men prithvi lok aur mithun, kanya, tula tatha dhanu ke chandrama men bhadra ka vas patal lok men bataya gaya hai. ‘‘mesh makar vrish karkat svarge, kanya mithun tula dhan nage. kunbh min alike sarimrityau vichrti bhadra tribhuvan madhye..’’ - tritiya pakshanusar mesh, kark, tula aur makar rashigat chandra sanchar men bhadra svarg lok, kanya, dhanu, kunbh tatha min rashigat chandra rahne par patal aur vrishabh, mithun, sinh, tatha vrishchik rashigat chandra sanchar hone par bhadra prithvi lok men nivas karti hai. prastut sandarbh men ‘jayotirvad bharnm’ ka shlok nimn hai- ‘‘rasatalastha timi-karmukangna-ghat sthite rajni bhumiga bhavet. dviref-go-dvand-n khayudhanuge, vishtirdivastha nanu she sharashige..’’ bhadra ka vas ‘bhurlokastha sada tyajya svarg patalga shubha’’ ke anusar krityakritya ke uddeshya se svarg nivasini, patal nivasini bhadra samast karyon men shubhdayi (prashasta) tatha prithvi vasini bhadra samast karyon ki nashak aur kashtaprad hoti hai. bhadra ka ang vibhag: bhadra ka ang vibhag muhutrt prakash ke nimn shlok par adharit hai. ‘‘mukhe panch galetveka vakshasyekadash smritaah. nabhau chatastrah shat shrauno tistrah puchchakhya nadikaah.. mukhe karya hanirgale pran nashau hridi dravya nashahkalinabhideshe. katavarth vighn sanan puchcha bhage jayashcheti bhadra sharire falan syat..’’ arthat bhadra ki aranbhik 5 ghatiyan mukh, punah 1 ghati gale ki, 11 ghati vaksh ki, punah 4 ghatiyan nabhi ki, 6 ghatiyan kati (kamr) ki tatha antim 3 ghatiyan puchch ki hain. mukh ki 5 ghatiyon men samast shubh karyon ka kriyanvayan nasht hota hai. gale ki ek ghati mrityukarak hai, aur vaksh ki gyarah ghatiyan daridrata karak, kati ki chah ghatiyan malintakarak tatha nabhi ki 4 ghatiyan karya nashak batai gai hain. matra antim tin ghatiyan (puchcha) karya ko siddh karne vali hoti hain. kuch vidvanon ne dashmi v ashtami ki pratham 5 ke uprant ekadshi aur saptami ke piche ki 12, tritiya aur purnima ke bad ki 10 tatha chaturdashi aur chaturthi ki antim 3 ghatiyon men bhadra ka puchch bataya hai. bhadra ke mukh ki matra 5 ghatiyan hi tyajya kahi gai hain. shukla paksh men chaturthi ke athven prahar ki antim tin ghatiyan bhadra ke puchch ki hain aur ashtami ke pratham prahar ki antim 3 ghatiyon ko kuch vidvanon ne bhadra ke puchch ki ghatiyan bataya hai. isi kram men ekadshi ke chathe prahar ki antim tin tatha purnima ke tritiya prahar ki antim tin ghatiyan bhadra ke puchch ki svikrit hain. krishn paksh men tritiya ke saptam prahar ki, saptami ko dvitiya prahar ki antim, dashmi ko pancham prahar ki tatha chaturdashi ke chaturth prahar ki antim tin ghatiyan matra hi shubh karyon men prashast hoti hain. bhadra ka udbhava: bhadra ke udbhav se sanbandhit ‘shripti’ ka nimn shlok granthon men upalabdh hai. mulakrshe shulyoge ravi din dashmi falgun krishna yata vishtirnishayan prabhvti niyatan shankar pahichange..’’ arthat falgun mas ke krishn paksh ki dashmi tithi ravivar ko mul nakshatra, shulyog men ratri samay bhadra ka udbhava bhagvan shankar ke sharir se hua. bhadra ki mukh disha: bhadra ka mukh chaturdashi men purva, ashtami men agni kon, saptami men dakshin, purnima men nairritya, chaturthi men pashchim, dashmi men vayavya, ekadshi men uttar tatha tritiya men ishan kon ki or rahta hai. bhadrakal men uske mukh ki taraf vali disha men yatra varjit hai, matra puchch vali disha (viprit) men yatra falaprad tatha siddhi dayak batai gai hai. bhadra ka parihar: svikaryata ki drishti se bhadra ke kuch parihar vakya (upay) vibhinn muhurt granthon men upalabdh hain, jinka vishleshan adhyayan yogya hai- - tithi ke purvarddh arthat pratham tis ghatiyon men hone vali bhadra ka ratri men dosh nahin hota. isi prakar tithi ke uttararddh arthat pichli tis ghatiyon men vyapt bhadra yadi din men ho to avashyak karya men tyajya nahin hoti - ‘‘titheah purvarddhaja ratrau dine bhadra pararddhaja. bhadra dosho n tatra syatkaryetvavashyake sati’’ garg.. - ‘brahmayaml’ ka mat hai ki din ki bhadra yadi ratri men tatha ratri ki bhadra din men ho to vah ashubh n hokar siddhi dayak hoti hai. dekhie: ‘‘diva bhadra yada ratrau-ratri bhadra yada diva. n tatra bhadra doshah syatsa bhadra bhadradayiki..’’ vrihddaivagya ranjan.. - ‘chandeshvar’ ka mat hai ki shukla paksh ki bhadra ‘vrishchik’ tatha krishn paksh ki bhadra ‘sarpini’ sangyak hai. iske anusar sarpa sangyak bhadra ke mukh ki 5 aur vrishchik sangyak ke puchch ki 3 ghatiyon ka kal samast shubh karyon ko dushit karne vala hai. ‘‘sarpini ch site pakshe vrishchiki ch sitetre. sarpini mukhto tyajya langule vrishchiki tyajyet..’’ kai acharyon ke mat se din ki bhadra ko sarpini tatha ratri ki bhadra ko vrishchiki bhi kaha gaya hai- ‘‘diva sarpini ratrau vrishchiki chapre jagah’’ - shighra bodh ka mat hai ki krishn paksh men saptami aur chaturdashi ki tatha shukla paksh men ashtami aur purnima ki purva dal bhadra din sangyak hai- yadi yah ratri men par jae. shukla paksh men chaturthi-ekadshi, krishn paksh men tritiya-dashmi ki par dal bhadra ratri sangyak hai. yadi yah din men par jae tab iska dosh nahin hota apitu aisi bhadra sukhaprad hoti hai. û rishi ‘bhrigu’ ka nimn vakya bhadra anutha parihar (upay) prastut karta hai. ‘‘some shukre ch kalyani shanau chaiv tu vrishchiki guru punyavti gyaeya chanyavareshu bhadraka..’’ arthat chandravar tatha shukravar ki bhadra kalyankari, shanivar tatha ravivar ki vrishchiki tatha guruvar ki bhadra punya pradan karne vali hoti hai. iske atirikt anya varon men vyapta bhadra ashubh fal pradan karne vali hoti hai. parihar men vishesh: bhadra vastutah shubh muhurton mane ati dushit kal ke rup men paribhashit hai aur kisi bhi shubh karya ke kriyanvayan men ise svikarya nahin kaha gaya hai tathapi jo vakya iske parihar svarup upalabdh hain, unka anusrn atyant avashyakta aur apriharya paristhitiyon matra men hi kiya jana chahie. arthat jab bhadra ke parihar bina bhi shubh kal upalabdh ho raha ho tab parihar vakyon ke prayog se bachna chahie tatha bhadra rahit shubh kal hi matra grahan kiya jana chahie. bhadra ke parihar vakyon ki vyakhya men ‘piyushdhara’ kar ka mat hai- ‘‘tasmatshubh karyanan bhadra rup dusht din-vyatirikt kal pratikshayogyatve tadaiv karyan, n dusht dine abadhe nopapattau badhau n nyayyah, iti nyayad vachanasya nishedh evan tatparyachch. avashya katrtavyasya tu shubh karmanah kalantrah-pratiksha mashmanasya evmadi pahiar mashritya dusht dine kritiruchitaiv..’’ saransh yah ki yadi shubh karya hetu bhadra se dushit samay se rahit kal (bhadra se avyapt kal) ki pratiksha ki ja sakti ho tab aise bhadra rahit kal men hi abhisht shubh karya karne chahie, na ki parihar adharit bhadra ke dushit kal men. parihar vakyon ka ashray to matra un karyon men prayogik kaha gaya hai jahan abhisht karya yojna anivarya aur shighra karna apekshit ho athva uske lie vilanb ki gunjaish n ho. bhadra men krityakritya: yadyapi samast muhurt granthon men ekmt se bhadrakal men shubh karyon ka spasht varjan nirdharit hai tathapi is kal men krityakritya ka nirdharan mukhyatah nimna vakyon par adharit hai- - vrihaspati ka kathan hai ki bhadra men vadh, bandhan, vish, agni, shastra chedan, shatru ka uchchatan adi nindit karya tatha ghora, mahish evan unt adi ka daman karna shubhdayak hota hai- ‘‘vadh-bandh vishaganya strachchednochchatnadiyat. turang mahishoshtra vikarm vishtaya tu siddhayati..’’ - acharya lalla ke anusar yuddh, raj darshan, bhayaprad ghat tatha hath, chikitsak ke agaman aur shatru uchchatan sahit hathi, mrig, unt tatha dhanadi ke sangrahadi jaise karyon men bhadra sadaiv grahan yogya hai- ‘‘yuddhe bhupti darshane bhayaprad dhate ch pate hathe vaidyasyagmne shatro samuchchatne. gaj mrigoshtra shvadike sangrahe stri sevayan bhadra sada grihyate..’’ - bhrigu ka mat bhi inhin ke sadrish hai. ”vivade shatruhnne bhayarthe rajadarshane. ikshudande tatha prokta bhadra shreshtha vidhiyate’’ ke rup men vivad, shatru daman, raj darshan tatha dandadi dene jaise karyon men bhadra dvara akrant kal shubh mana gaya hai. - iske atirikt sabhi muhurt granthon ne vivah, jatk sanskar, dainik krityon ke kriyanvayan tatha karyaranbh jaise karyon men anya kuyogon ke saman hi bhadra kal ko sada tyajya ghoshit kiya hai- ‘‘varjayedvar velan ch gandantan janmabhan tatha bhadran krakchyogan cha tithyantan yamghantkan dagdhatithi ch bhant ch kulikan virvajyet..’’ khagoliya drishtikon se bhadra akash ka ek nishchit bhag (ansh) hota hai jo prithvi ke bhraman tatha ghurnanavash kabhi prithvi ke niche adhah kapal men, kabhi upar udhrva kapal men aur kabhi ke samanantar sthit rahta hai. samanya dharna yah hai ki karan tithi ka adha man hota hai. arthat jaise pratyek tithi nirman men surya-chandra ke bhoganshon men paraspar 12 ansh ka antar apekshit hota hai, vaise hi karn nirman men in bhoganshon ka antar 6 ansh hona avashyak hai. kintu jaisa ki vidit hai vedangkalin tatha jain granthon men karan din aur ratri ke adhar par vistarit kie gae hain. atharvavediya jyotish ‘arthavana’ adhyatm jyotish granthon men yah manyata siddhantkalin 6 ansh par adharit niyam se sarvatha bhinn hai. bhadra men varjaniya karya: - raksha bandhn: prati varsh manaya jane vala yah rashtriya tyohar shravan mas ki purnima ko ata hai. is shravni (upakarma) ka bahut bara mahatva hai. jahan ek or bahnen apne bhaiyon ki kalai men rakhiyan bandhti hain aur bhai unki raksha ka vachan dete hanai vahin dusri or brahman apne apne yajmanon ko aur guru apne shishyon ko rakshasutra bandhakar shubhashirvad dete hain. brahman naya yagyaopvit dharn karte hain aur adhyatmik evan bhautik tatvon ke gyata, manishi, rishi-muni, tapasvi, sadhu-sant upakarm karke nav gyan, navin anveshan, adhyayan ki or agrasar hote hain. atah aise uttama pavitra din men ye sabhi shubh karya bhadrakal men karne ka purna nishedh rahta hai. ”shravni (upakarma) bhadropri rakshabandhnan shubham.“ - holika-dahn: falgun mas ki purnamasi ko yah rashtriya tyohar bare ullas ke sath prati varsh sanpurn desh men manaya jata hai. is parva ko bhi bhadra ke dosh kal men manane ka jyotishiya drishtikon se purn nishedh rahta hai. tatparya yah ki holika-dahan ka karya bhadra rahit avdhi men hi kiya jae. jalti holi ki agni men jau, gehun aur chane ki balon ko bhuna jata hai. is karya ko navanneshti yagya kahte hain jise sanpadit karne se krishkon ko baikunth ki prapti hoti hai. atah ekam tithi, chaturdashi tithi, bhadra yukt purnima aur din ke samay holika-dahan karna purnatah varjit hai, anyatha raja ko nesht. bhadra men karya evan dosh nivritti ke upay: kaurvon aur pandvon ke bich jo mahabharat ka yuddh hua us samy dharmaraj yudhishthir ke prashn karne par bhagvan shri krishn ne uttar dete hue kaha tha, ”chayasuryasutedevi vishtirishtarthadayini. pujitasi yatha-shaktya bhadrebhadraprada bhavah“ arthat vishti ravi bharya chaya se utpann shanishchar bhagini hai jo thore se pujn-archan se sansar ke praniyon ka anisht dur kar unka bhala karti hai. yadi koi bhi vyakti pratah samay uthakar bhadra ke dvadash namon ka uchcharan kare to use bimari nahin sataegi. rogi rog se mukt ho jata hai. grah apni pratikulta chorakar anukul ho jate hain. vighna-badha shant ho jati hai. yuddh men, rajkul men, dyut men sarvatra vijay milti hai. bhadra ke barah nam nimn hain. - dhanya, dadhimukhi, bhadra, mahamari, khar-anna, kalratri, maharudra, vishti, kulputrika, bhairvi, mahakali, asur-kshayakari - muhurt chintamni ke anusar bhadra ko madhyahn kal pashchat shubh mana gaya hai. - jo svar chale soi dag dije, bharni bhadra ek n lije. - purb-gaudhuli, pashchim-prat, uttara-dopahar dakshin-rat. ka kare bhadra, ka disha shul, kah bhaddari sab chaknachur.. - pravisi nagar kijai sab kaja. hriday rakhi kausal pur raja.. - pratyek panchang aur kailendar men bhadra ke praranbh hone v samapta hone ka samay ullikhit rahta hai. uska anusaran karte hue nij-karya men pravritt hona chahie. - isi tarah panchang, samachar patra, duradarshan adi ke madhyam se dainik chandra sthiti gyat kar bhadra vas ka nirupan karte hue apne karya/yatradi aranbh kar sakte hain basharte chandrama kark, sinh, kunbh aur min rashiyon men n ho. û disha ka nirupan karte hue bhi sva karya hetu yatraranbh kar sakte hain. udaharan ke lie yadi kisi ko krishn paksh ki saptami tithi ke purvarddh kal men uttar disha ki yatra karni ho, to uske lie aisa bhadra vala din doshkarak nahin rahega kyonki krishn paksh ki saptami vali bhadra ka vas dakshin disha men hota hai. uttar disha gami ke lie dakshin disha uski pith piche rahegi. pith piche ki bhadra shubh mani jati hai. - bhadra vale din bhadra ke puchchakal ko gyat kar, jo jyotish shastranusar 24.24 minat ki tin ghatiyon arthat 72 minat arthat 1 ghante 12 minat ka samay hota hai, us kal men avashyak karya kar sakte hain basharte aise pal apke lie anukul hon. û ratri-din ke bhed se bhadra ki sangya gyat kar bhadra vale din men yatraranbh/karyaranbh kar sakte hain. - svarg aur patal men vas karne vali bhadra ka 67 pratisht samay purn bhadrakal men se shubh hai, ismen karya kar len. - shanivasriya vrishchiki bhadra ko chorakar dekhen to din ke hisab se 85.7 pratishat bhadra shubh rahti hai. - godhuli bela sanpurn karyon hetu prashast v grahya hai. ismen ashubh tithi, nakshatra ya karan ka dosh nahin lagta. - yatraranbh men ‘ravi ko tambul, som ko darpan, mangal gurdhniya charvan, budhdh mithai guru ko rai shukra kahai mohi dahi suhai shani ko bayviranghi khave, indrahi jiti nar ghar ko ave.’ - kulguru, purohit ki agyanusar dosh shanti adi ke uprant bhadrakal men karya karna soch sakte hain.
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navavarsh visheshank  January 2009

jyotishiya drishti se 2009 desh aur deshvasiyon ke lie kaisa hoga, bajar ke utar-chadhav jismen sheyar bajar, sona, dalar, varsha adi ka sukshmata se vishleshan kiya gaya hai. iske atirikt is ank men vibhinn rashiyon ke lie rahu-ketu ke fal bhi die gae hai.

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