दीपावली के पौराणिक प्रसंग

dipavli ke pauranik prasang  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 2751 |  
dipavli ke pauranik prasang dae. bhagvan sahay shrivastav dipavli ka itihas ati prachin hai. ved, puran tatha hindu dharm ke anya granthon men iska ullekh tatha saubhagya ki devi lakshmi ke svarup aur mahima ka vyapak vivaran milta hai. prachin kal men bhartiya jahan bhi gae, dipavli ke prati apni astha, vishvas aur paranpraen bhi sath le gae. falasvarup bhartiya jivan darshan ke tamam upakramon ke sath-sath lakshmi puja ki paranpra bhi desh-deshantron men failti gai. upalabdh sakshyon ke anusar dipavli ka sanskritik aur pavan parva kam se kam tin hajar varsh purana hai, kintu us samay iska svarup, aj se bilkul bhinn tha. aj ham ise dhan ki devi lakshmi ke pujan ka parva mante hain. jabki prachin kal men yah keval yakshon ka hi parva tha. is ratri ko yaksh jati ke sabhi log apne samrat kuber ke sath vilas men bitate aur apni yakshiniyon ke sath amod-pramod karte. sarvatra harshollas aur premonmad ki varsha hoti, isilie is ratri ko ‘yaksh ratri’ bhi kaha jata hai. ‘varah puran’ aur vatsyayan ke ‘kamsutra’ men bhi iska ullekh yaksh ratri ke rup men hi kiya gaya hai. bad men is avasar par yakshadhipti kuber athva yaksh jati ke hi pujan ki paranpra bani. uÿari bharat ke anek ganvon men yaksh vriksh, yaksh chaira athva yaksh chaitya hone ke praman mile hain. in sthanon par vibhinn pratikon ke madhyam se keval yakshon ki hi puja prachalan men thi. himachal pradesh ki kuch parvatiya jatiyon men ab bhi yaksh pujan ki paranpra hai. vibhinn sthanon par ki gai khudai men kushankal ki anek aisi pratimaen mili hain, jinmen yakshadhipti kuber aur lakshmi ko ek sath dikhaya gaya hai. kuch pratimaon men kuber apni patni hariti ke sath bhi dikhae gae hain. aisa pratit hota hai ki prachin kal men kuber aur unki patni hariti ka hi pujan kiya jata hoga. kalantar men hariti ka sthan lakshmi ne le liya aur age chalakar kuber ke sthan par ganesh ji ko pratishthit kar diya gaya. kuch sthanon par ganesh aur lakshmi ji ke pujan ke sath indra aur kuber ki bhi puja ki jati hai. yaksha-ratri aur lakshmi pujn: yaksh ratri ke sath lakshmi pujan ke jurne ka karan dhan ki devi ke rup men lakshmi ki dharna tatha isi din vishnu se unke vivah ka prasang hai. fir kuber tatha lakshmi ki prakriti men samanta bhi adhik hai. kuber dhan ke devta hain aur lakshmi ji dhan ki devi. antar keval yah hai ki kuber ki manyata yaksh jati men thi aur lakshmi ki dev tatha manav jatiyon men. kalantar men jab hamare yahan vibhinn jatiyon ka samanvay hua to apas men ek-dusre ki manyataon ko svikar karna bhi svabhavik tha. isilie kuber aur lakshmi ko ek hi rup manakar unki puja ki jane lagi. praranbh men devjati ke mukhya devta keval varun the. iske bad jab vaivasvat manu ne manav sanskriti ko janm diya to indra tatha anya devtaon ko bhi pujya mana gaya. age chalakar jab shaiv sanpraday ka mahatva samaj men barhne laga to ganesh ki pratishtha bhi barhi. ganesh ji riddhi-siddhi ke devta mane jate hain, jabki kuber keval dhan ke hi adhipti hain, isilie ganesh kuber se shreshth hue. udhar lakshmi keval dhan ki hi nahin, yash, sukh, krishi adi ki bhi devi hain, isilie lakshmi ke sath ganesh ki niktta mani jane lagi. kuber hi gannayak (ganesh): ‘matsya puran’ (180/62) ke anusar svayan kuber hi devadhidev shankar ji ki nagri varansi men akar apne yaksh svabhav ko chorakar unke gannayak aur manglmurti ganesh ban gae. puja ke manch par kie gae is parivartan men koi vishesh kathinai bhi nahin hui. ganesh ke gajanan svarup ko yadi chor diya jae to unki shesh akriti kuber se kafi milti-julti hai. vahi lanbodar aur sthul sharir jo ganesh ka hai, kuber ka bhi hai, isilie kuber ka sthan ganesh ji ne bare sahaj aur saral rup men hi le liya. vibhinn jatiyon men prempurn samanvay ke karan log yah to bhulte hi ja rahe the ki unke purvaj kis jati ke the aur unke devta kaun the. apsi samanvay ka ek bara praman yah hai ki svayan samrat binbisar bhi dipavli ke din yaksh mandir men jakar pujan kiya karte the. dusri taraf varansi men bhagvan shankar ke sath hi manibhatt yaksh ki bhi puja hoti thi. yakshane ke bare men hamen anek virodhabhasi baten parhne ko milti hain. ‘mahabhart’ men inhen kahin devjati ka mana gaya hai, kahin updev ki koti ka aur kahin manav jati ka atharvaved men devtaon ke nayak varun aur prajapti ko yaksh ke rup men chihnit kiya gaya hai. dusri or, vaidik sahitya ke chintkon ka kathan hai ki yaksh anaryon ke devta the. yaksh devjati men to nahin the, lekin apsi sanbandhon ke karan dev samaj men unhen sammanpurn sthan diya jata tha. isi karan yakshon ko kabhi dev aur kabhi updev ki sangya di gai. is prakar, dev ya manvjati ke n hone par bhi apsi samanvay ke karan yaksh bhi manav rup men svikar kie gae. yakshon ki prakriti aur vyaktitva ke bare men bhi kai vichar parhne ko milte hain. jain granthon men yakshon ko ganbhir prakriti ka batate hue unke vyaktitva ki charcha in shabdon me ki gai hai - ‘‘ve dekhne men priya hote hain, unke hath, pair, nakh, talu, jihna adi raktavarn ke hote hain. ve kirit aur nana prakar ke abhushan dharan karte hain. bauddh granthon men yakshon ko ek or dayalu devta to dusri or kuch anya sthanon par krur aur manav bhakshi batlaya gaya hai. samanya rup men yakshon ka jivan darshan tha- khao, pio aur mauj karo. unke pas athah sanpÿia thi. vishal svarn bhandar ke ve malik the. bare paimane par unka vyapar chalta tha. samrajya vistar ko lekar nag jati se unki pratidvandita chalti thi. dhan sanpann hone ke karan ve atyadhik shaktishali bhi hote the. jahan bhi unhen apni shakti ke pradarshan ki avashyakta hoti, ve nirmam ho jate the. yakshon men hi age chalakar ‘raksha’ jati ka uday hua, jo multah raksha karne ke lie bani thi, lekin ismen manavatar gunon ki prablta ke karan is jati ke log rakshas kahlae. chunki rakshas manav jati ke viruddh tatha atyadhik atyachari the, islie unse sanbandhit hone ke karan bhi yaksh jati badnam hui. yakshadhipti kuber, ravan ka sautela bhai tha. maharshi pulastya ke do patniyan thin. pahli patni se kuber ka janm hua aur dusri se ravan ka. yaksh apni pratibha ke karan bhi vikhyat the. jalashyon par bare-bare pul banane ki taknik ka unhen achcha gyan tha. devtaon ki murtiyon par aksar yakshon ko urte hue ful malaen arpit karte hue dikhlaya jata hai, isse yah bhi nishkarsh nikala ja sakta hai ki ve vayuyan jaise kisi yan ka bhi prayog karte the. adikalin yaksh mahilaen apne rup saundarya aur akarshan ke lie prasiddh thin. anek prachin mandiron me yakshiniyon ki murtiyan bari sankhya men prapt hoti hain. yakshiniyan nritya aur gayan men bhi pravin thin aur isilie kabhi-kabhi yaksh aur gandharvon ko ek hi samjhne ki bhul ki jati hai. vastav man e y e jatiya n alg-alag thi.n dipavli par atishbaji, khanpan athva amod-pramod ke jo vibhinn karyakram hote hain, ve spasht hi hamen yakshon ki smriti se jor dete hain, jo has vilas aur masti ke sath is tyauhar ko manate the. is prakar, dipavli ke adikalin svarup ke sath yakshon ki smriti sahaj rup men juri hai.
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dipavli visheshank  October 2008

panch parva dipavli tyauhar ka pauranik evan vyavharik mahatva, dipavli pujan ke lie muhurt vishleshan, sukh samriddhi hetu lakshmi ji ki upasna vidhi, dipavli ki rat kiye jane vale mahatvapurn anushthan evan puja, dipavli par vishesh rup se pujya yantra evan unka mahatva

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