एक सही तिथिपत्रक का गणितीय आधार

ek sahi tithipatrak ka ganitiya adhar  

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hindu sanskriti men panchang ka apna vishesh mahatva hai. jivan ke vibhinn sanskaron, yatraon, kisi karya ke aranbh adi men panchang ki sahayta li jati hai. uddeshya keval ek hota hai - vyakti aur samaj ke jivan ko sukhamay banana. ayan, vishuv, ritu, saur evan chandra, paksh, tithi (surya evan chandra udyast sahit), dinman, ratriman aur nakshatra panchang ke mukhya ang hain. in sare tathyon ka vishleshan ganit ke adhar par kiya jata hai. saur mas se sankrantiyan, shashthi, sanvatsar aur varon ke akalan ko bhi is vyavastha se jorakar tithipatrakon ke kshetra ko aur adhik vistrit kar diya gaya. vaidik vyavastha men inka koi sandarbh nahin hai. kalgnna men parishuddhata ke lie inhen apnaya gaya hai. rigved men ‘uksha dadhar prithvimutadyam’ kaha gaya hai. arthat surya prithvi ko dharan kie hue hai. yah yatharth bhi hai. surya ke akarshan se nirdharit ek niyat marg men prithvi satat vicharan karti hai. prithvi par se surya jis marg par chalta hua pratit hota hai, use jayotish ki paribhashik shabdavli men krantivriÿa kahte hain. is krantivritt marg ke idhr-udhar 9 ansh se bane vistar ko bhachakra kahte hain. prithvi ki niyat gati ke anusar ayan, vishuv, ritu evan din-rat hote hain. sankrantiyon ke nirdharan aur panchang, jise tithipatrak aur patra bhi kahte hain, ki parishuddhata men ayan aur vishuv tithiyon ki bhumika aham hoti hai. jis prakar prithvi ke sapeksh surya krantivriÿa men rahta hai usi prakar prithvi ke sapeksh chandra apne mandal men bhraman karta hai. chandra adhik gatiman hai aur vah jab surya se 12 anshon ke antar par ata hai, tab ek tithi ka nirman pura karta hai. is prakar kisi bhi tithipatrak ki ganna ke mukhya adhar surya, chandra aur prithvi hi hain. ek chaitha ghatak bhi hai aur vah hai nakshatra. ye nakshatra mukhyatah 28 hain. kisi arsh tithipatrak hetu ritu sanbandh vyavastha apnana anivarya hai. puri chah rituon ko uÿarayan tatha dakshinayan aur vasant tatha sharad sanpat ke vishuv binduon se niyantrit kiya gaya hai. ye sabhi bindu sahi panchang ki kasauti hain. ayanasyoÿar syadau makran yati bhaskarah. tatah kunbhan ch minan ch rashe rashyantaran dvijah.. arthat uÿarayan ki shuruat ke sath bhaskar ka makar men pravesh mana jae. is tathya ko ganit ke adhar par bhi siddh kiya ja sakta hai. isi prakar shivmhapuran ke shlok ‘tasmad dashgunagyaeyan ravi sankramnebudhaah. vishuve taddashagunmynetaddashasmritam..’ men yahi bat spasht karte hue bhagvan shiv ne vishuv aur ayan tithiyon ko sankrantiyon ke sath jorte hue updesh kiya hai. varahmihir kaha hai udgayanan makradau ritvah shishiradayashch suryavshat. dvibhvnan kal saman dakshin maynan ch karkatakat ..25.. sar yah hai ki uÿarayan ghatit hote hi surya ki makar sankranti bhi hogi. vastav men uÿarayan surya ki paramakranti (dakshin) ka falit hai aur is paramakranti ka falit hai surya ka 270 ansh par pahunchna. isi paramakranti ke karan us din prithvi ke uttari golardh men dinman nyunatam aur ratriman adhikatam hota hai. iske atirikt is din surya makar vriÿa par hota hai arthat pratichchaya ke rup men nirdharit makar rekha ke upar khare apki chaya ka lop hoga. asman men paramakranti, dharti par pratyaksh sarvadhik asman dinrat aur makar ya kark sankranti ke din makar ya kark rekha par chaya lop, ye tin baten makar ya kark sankranti aur uÿarayan ya dakshinayan ki sakshat pahchan hain. gregori kailendar ke anusar ye tithiyan 21-22 disanbar ya 21-22 jun banti hain aur isi din shuru hote hain shishir ritu evan tapas mas tatha varsha ritu evan nabh mas. chandra dramas nirdharan in sankrantiyon ki anuvarti vyavastha hai. tatparya yah hai ki tapas mas ki ukt sankranti ghatit ho jane par jo shukla paksh aega vahi magh shukla paksh hoga. isi prakar nabhas sankranti se shravan shukla paksh ko samjhna chahie. syatdadi yugan magh stapah shuklo din. dinantyachah..6.. (yajurvedang jyo.) yahan yah bhi jan lena chahie ki janvri men kabhi surya ka paramakranti par pahunchna sanbhav nahin hai, astu vahan tak (janvri men kisi bhi din 1 se 31 tarikh tak) sankranti bhi asanbhav hai. agar koi panchang ya tithipatrak 21-22 disanbar se hatakar kabhi bhi makar sankranti dikhae upar varnit mankon par vah asafal kahlaega aur use ham ek hi tithipatrak nahin kah sakte. ap us panchang men dinman aur ratriman dekhen. agar laghutam dinman se hatakar makar sankranti dikhai gai hai, to us panchang ke galat hone men koi sandeh nahin. usi prakar uÿar se dakshin kranti men ate hue ya dakshin se uÿar kranti men jate hue surya prithvi ke sapeksh do bar shunya kranti par ata hai. surya us din vishuvat rekha par hoga. isise us din ko vishuv, vishuvat ya pahari boli men bikhot kaha jata hai. is din sare bhumandal men din aur rat barabar hote hain. yahi nahin, is din bhumadhya rekha par khare vyakti ka chayalop bhi hoga. yah itni pramanik tithi hai ki thik madhyahn men ap apne sthan par kisi bhi chari ki chaya se apne sthan ka shuddhatam bhuprishthiya akshansh bhi jan sakte hain. ye din vasant ritu ke sandarbh ka ukt bindu hote hain. angreji kailendar ki vartaman vyavastha ke anusar yah din 20-21 march hi vaishakhi kahlata hai. astu kisi bhi panchang men dinman aur ratriman ka barabar hona dekhen. yadi vah 20-21 march ko hi ho aur vah panchang vaishakhi ya vaishakh sankranti aprail men bata raha ho, to nishchit janie ki vah panchang sarvatha galat hai. yahan ap yah bhi dekh sakte hain ki ayan aur vishuvon ki char sankrantiyan isvi kailendar men kahan ho rahi hain. dhyan rakhen ki koi bhi sankranti agar kisi bhi mah ki 21-22 tarikh ko hogi to koi bhi anya sankranti kisi bhi anya mah ki 14-15 tarikh ko nahin ho sakti ya fir tabhi ho sakti hai yadi agla mahina kam se kam 23-24 ya 53-54 dinon ka ho, jo ki vyavasthanrgat nahin hai. ajakal ham acharya munjal ki tarah dhruvon ki madad se ganit kar grahon ki sthiti prapt nahin kar rahe hain jaise ki laghumanas ke ye granthkar apne samay men karne ko majbur the. unhonne paya ki ganit men varnit sthitiyan vastavik ayan evan vishuv binduon men surya ki sthiti se mel nahin kha rahi thin apitu ek nishchit antar varsh bhar bana rahta tha. takniki abhav ke karan sahi ganit men n pahunch pane se acharya munjal ko ek niyam banana para jismen is upar varnit antar ko niyamanusar ghata karke hi drik sthiti ke tulya parinam hasil karna hota tha. yadi ham bhi aj ganitagat sthitiyon ko le rahe hote, to hamen bhi vahi kuch karna parta jo unhonne kiya. kintu ham aj ganitagat nahin apitu adhunik sukshm vedhshalaon se prapt drik sthitiyan hi lete hain, jinmen kisi prakar ke dhuravank sanshodhan (bij sanskar) ki avashyakta nahin rah jati. is prakar yadi koi panchangakarta vedhshalaon se drik sthitiyon ko lekar punah usmen kisi bhi tarah ka sanshodhan karta hai, to vah sanshodhan sudhar ke nimiÿa n hokar vastav men vikriti ka hetu banta hai. aisi vikrit sthitiyon par adharit panchangon ko adhunik bhasha men nirayan panchang kahakar pukara jata hai. astu sahi panchang ke lie drik sthiti arthat sayan ka hona avashyak hai. is prakar jo tithipatrak ya patra sankrantiyon ki sahi jankari dee, chandra mason aur nakshatron ki yatharth pahchan ke sath jankari de, vahi sahi tithipatrak hoga aur vahi sahi vrat-parvon aur tyoharon ki jankari de sakta hai. yahi nahin, sahi ritubodh evan malmas adi ki sahi jankari bhi aise hi kisi sahi tithipatrak se mil sakti hai. tatparya yah ki panchang athva tithipatrak ki parishuddhata ke lie uska ganitiya vishleshan par adharit hona avashyak hai.
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panchang visheshank  April 2010

is anupam visheshank men panchang ke itihas vikas ganna vidhi, panchangon ki bhinnata, tithi ganit, panchang sudhar ki avashyakta, mukhya panchangon ki suchi v panchang parichay adi atyant upyogi vishyon ki vistrit charcha ki gai hai.pavan sthal namak stanbh ke antargat tirtharaj kailash mansrovar ka rochak varnan kiya gaya hai.

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