स्वामी विवेकानंद, आदिशंकराचार्य

svami vivekanand, adishankracharya  

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bhagavad drishta yugpurush svami vivekanand, adishankracharya pan. mahesh chandra bhatt adhyatmik aur dharmik mulyon ka adhopatan tatha charitrik aur naitik siddhanton ka avmulyan jab-jab hota hai tab-tab mahan drishta, sant, samajsudharak, adhyatm ke udbodhak sant purush is dhara par avirbhut hote hain aur dharm ka abhyuday karte hain. aise hi do bhartiya santon ka jivan vritt aur unke vrihattar karya kshetra ka chitran is lekh men kiya gaya hai. janmanas ki jivn-paddhati ko shaktishali banane, uska punruddhar karne, adhyatmik mulyon ki purnasthapna karne aur sanatan dharm ke siddhanton ke nirantar aur satat shashvat prachar karne ke nimitt yugpurush apne mastishk aur apni shakti ko nyauchavar karte rahe hain. unmen vivekanand aur adishankracharya ke nam vishesh rup se ullekhniya hai. svami vivekanand ka janm 12 janvri 1863 ko dhanu lagn evan vrishchik navansh men kalakatta ke ek kayasth parivar men hua. mata-pita ne inka nam naredranath datt rakha. unke pita vishvanath datt kalakatta haikort men adhivakta the. ve samanyatah samajik evan dharm se sanbandhit mukdmon ko lara karte the. vahin man bhuvneshvari devi dharmik evan bhagvan men atyadhik vishvas karne vali mahila thi. bhagvan shiv inke isht the. balak narendranath datt par apne mata evan pita donon ka hi prabhav para tha. unhonne jahan dharm evan dhyan ke bare men apni mata se jana, vahin samajik evan dharmik samasyaon ko apne pita ke madhyam se samjha. ve bachapan se hi parhne-likhne men bahut hoshiyar the. unhen darshan, itihas, samajik vigyan tatha sahitya men chatravritti prapt hui. unki bachapan se hi upnishad, bhagavad gita, ramayan, mahabharat aur puranon men ruchi thi. sath hi unhen sangit ki bhi achchi shiksha-diksha prapt hui. shiksha prapt karne ke sath hi ve apne sharir ka bhi pura dhyan rakhte the. nitya vyayam evan khelkud ke jariye apne sharir ko valishth rakhna bhi unka ek shauk tha. svami vivekanand ne dharm ko samajik sangathan aur sahyog ki mul shakti mana. unke anusar pratyek atma hi avyakt brahm hain. bahya evan antah prakriti donon ka niyaman kar is antarnihit brahm svarup ko abhivyakt karna hi jivan ka dhyey hai. vidyadhyayan ke dauran hi narendranath ne pashchatya darshan, itihas evan yuropiyan rashtron ke bare men jana. unka bauddhik star bahut unnat ho chuka tha. ve harabart spensar, jon stuart mil, jorj dablyu.ef., higal, arthar skopenhavar, devid hyum ityadi vicharkon se bahut prabhavit the. inhin dinon narendra ka sanpark brahm samaj se hua. unhen jis gyan prapti ki pyas thi, shayad use tript karna brahm samaj ke samarthya ki bat nahin thi. navanbar 1881 men unka ramkrishn parmhans se milna hua. ramkrishn parmhans narendra ko dekhte hi yah samajh gaye ki yah balak koi sadharan vyakti nahin hai, ramkrishn parmhans unki jigyasa se bhali-bhanti parichit the aur dhairya ke sath unke prashnon ke uttar diya karte the. narendra ne ramkrishn parmhans ko apna guru svikar kar liya . san 1885 men narendra ko ramkrishn parmhans ne nirvikalp samadhi ka anubhav karvaya, man kali se sakshat karvaya tatha narendra avtar samadhi men lin ho gaye. unhonne 31 mai 1893 ko shikago men ayojit dharm sammelan men saragarbhit vyakhyan diye aur amerika men vedant samitiyan sthapit ki. amerika ke pashchat 1895 men inglaind men unhonne apne vyakhyanon se sabhi ko bhartiya dharm aur darshan ka gyan karvaya. svami vivekanand ke vicharon ko tatkalik sabhi pashchatya vidvanon ne saraha. svami vivekanand ke darshan ke tin pramukh srot hain. pratham unke dvara agam aur nigam ka adhyayan, dvitiya apne adhyatmik guru ramkrishn parmhans ka sanpark aur tritiya apne jivan ka anubhav. in tinon hi madhyamon se svami vivekanand ke darshan evan unke dvara di jane vali shikshaon ka pata chalta hai. unki rachnaon ka shuddh darshanik ansh gyanyog, pantjli sutron par bhashya evan vedant darshan par bharat tatha pashchimi deshon men diye gaye unke bhashan hain. svami vivekanand ne pahli bar vedant darshan ko vyavharik rup dene ka athak prayas kiya. ve itne param gyani the ki unhonne sanpurn pashchatya darshan ka bhi adhyayan kiya. usmen bhi unki gahri paith thi. pashchimi deshon ki audyogik kranti se bhi ve bhali bhanti parichit the. ve har sanskriti ko bare hi adar ki drishti se dekhte the. vastav men vivekanand ke chintan men sarvadeshikta vyapt thi. vedant ke adhar par ve ek aisa darshan viksit karna chahte the, jo samast sangharshon ko dur karke manav jati ko bahumukhi sanpurnata ke us star tak pahuncha sake, jo use prapt hona chahie. dharm ke sanbandh men vivekanand ke vichar buddhijivi aur vaigyanik drishti se nirdharit hue the. dharm unki drishti se ek prabal shakti thi. svami vivekanand ne dharm ko samajik sangathan aur sahyog ki mul shakti mana. unke anusar pratyek atma hi avyakt brahm hain. bahya evan antah prakriti donon ka niyaman kar is antarnihit brahm svarup ko abhivyakt karna hi jivan ka dhyey hai. unka kahna tha ki karm, bhakti, athva gyan yog men se kisi ke dvara athva ek se adhik sansadhnon se ya fir sabke sammilit prayas ke dvara yah dhyey prapt kar lo aur mukt ho jao. yahi dharm ka sarvasva hai. mat-matantrvidhi aur anushthan ye sab gaun hai. svami vivekanand ne dharm ko vigyan bataya hai. jis prakar prakritik vigyan bhautik jagat ke niyamon ka anusandhan karta hai, usi prakar dharm naitik aur tatvamimansiya jagat ke satyon se sanbandhit hai aur manushya ke antrik svabhav ke bhavya niyamon ki khoj karta hai. samast gyan hi dharm hai aur samast gyan hi vigyan hai. vivekanand un vicharkon men the jo yah mante the ki samajik prakriti ke sadhan ke rup men dharm ki upyogita samapt ho chuki hai. dharm ke sanbandh men bharat men faile hue bhram ko dur karne ka unka pura prayas tha. ve hindu dharm ke sabse bare prashansak the aur yahi bat unhonne vishva dharm sammelan shikago men bhi kahi thi. svami vivekanand ke darshan ke tin pramukh srot hain. pratham unke dvara agam aur nigam ka adhyayan, dvitiya apne adhyatmik guru ramkrishn parmhans ka sanpark aur tritiya apne jivan ka anubhav. adishankracharya adishankracharya isa ki satvin shatabdi men avtrit hue. shivguru namak brahman ki patni vishishta devi ne ek putra ko janm diya tha, jise shankar kaha gaya. manyata hai ki balak shankar ke rup men bhagvan sadashiv ne hi avtar liya tha. jab prachlit dharm ganrathon men bhatkav ane laga, to isse samajik aur dharmik vyavastha charmra gai. kitne hi chote-mote sanpraday mat-matantar uth kharen hue. aise men ek aise vyaktitva ki avashyakta thi, jo dharm ke adhar par chal rahe bhedbhav ko samapt kare. balak shankar ne is uddeshya ke lie apna jivan laga diya. iske lie unhonne apni mata ka parityag karne men bhi sankoch nahin kiya. ve aise sadguru ki talash men nikal pare, jo shastra ka gyata ho aur jinki advait brahmatatva men ananya nishtha bhi ho. mahan tapasvi govindpad ne shankar ki jivan dhara ko badal diya. unki agya se hi vah 'brahmasutra' par bhashya likhne kashi gaye. ek din kashi men ek stri apne pati ke shav ko raste men rakhakar antim sanskar ke lie logon se sahayta mang rahi thi. acharya shankar ne us mahila se shav ko ek or khiska lene ka agrah kiya. mahila ka jabav tha, 'putrah! ise apne ap ek or khisak jane ke lie kah do.' shankar ne kaha, ismen hilne-dulne ki shakti kahan! stri ne pucha, 'jab yah adi anthin prakriti shakti ke bina hil-dul sakti hai, to yah shav kyon nahin hil-dul sakta?' shankar asmanjas men par gaye. ve kuch soch pate ki vahan se shav aur stri donon hi adrishya ho gaye. ve samajh gaye ki man annapurna unhen yah samjhane ayi thi ki nirgun-nirakar se vyavhar nahin chalta, vyavhar ke lie to sagun-sakar tatva jaruri hai. is ghatna ne unhen 'vyavhar' arthat sansar ke bare men vichar karne ko vivash kar diya. shankar ne vyavharik aur parmarthik satya ko samjhaya. unhonne kaha ki vyavharik vah hai jo dikhai de raha hai, jabki parmarthik vah hai, jo vastav men sahi hai. jaise ham aksar kahte hain ki suryoday ya suryast ko dekhna vyavharik hai, jabki yah janna ki surya uday ya ast nahin hota, parmarthik hai. shankar ne kaha ki isi tarah brahm parmarthik hai, lekin unke anya svarup jo hamen dikhai de rahe hain, vah vyavharik hai. unka kahna tha ki brahm ke alava kuch bhi nahin, sab uske rup hain. nishkam karm aur nishkam upasna se antahkaran shuddh hota hai. fal-svarup vah yogyata ati hai, jismen advait tatva tik pata hai. yah samast srishti parmatma ka hi rup hai. lekin parmarthik satya aur vyavharik satya men aksar santulan bigar jata hai. isse irshya, dvesh, unch-nich adi ka bhav bana rahta hai. kahte hain ki ek bar marg men nashe men chur ek vyakti ke sparsh se shankar bachna chahte the. vah marg ke ek or khare ho gaye. is par vah vyakti bola, ''kaun kiska sparsh karega, jab ek tatva ke alava dusra kuch hai hi nahin. atma ka n to koi sparsh kar sakta hai aur n hi atma kisi ka sparsh karti hai.'' advait tatva ka prachar-prasar karne nikle acharya isse lajjit ho gaye. samne dekha to bhagvan vishvanath sakshat khare the. iske bad shankar ne guru agya se prasthanatrayi brahmasutra, ekadshopnishad aur shrimadbhagavadgita par bhashya likhakar shrutisammat advait siddhant ka pratipadan kiya. apne samay ke sabhi matvadon ke acharyon se shankar ne shastrarth kiya tatha unhen yah samjhaya ki jivan ka lakshya sansarik bandhnon se mukti hai. unhonne khandit mandiron ka jirnoddhar kar unmen murtiyon ki sthapna ki. unki rachi stuti sanket deti hai ki ve vibhinn rupon men tatva ka hi darshan kiya karte the. jab acharya ko yah gyat hua ki man vishishta devi antim sansen gin rahi hai, to ve tatkal vahan pahunche. unke samaksh isht shrivishnu ka smaran kiya. acharya shankar ne keval 32 varsh ki alpayu men kai aise karya kiye jiski badaulat unhen jagadguru kaha gaya hai. shrringeri math men 'bahujan hitay' devi sarasvati ki pratishtha ki. varnashram dharm ki punah sthapna ki. moksh dharm ke prachararth sanyasiyon ka sangathan kiya. dharm ke prachar-prasar ke lie shri adishankracharya ne charon dhamon men kramshah sharda math, govardhan math, jyotirmath aur shrringeri math ki sthapna ki. vedon ke sanrakshan aur prachar-prasar ka dayitva yogya shishyon ko saunpa. vaidik dharm ki sthapna aur advait tatva ka sabhi men darshan karane ke lie apne sarvasva ka samarpan karne vala mahan purush bharat ko jagadguru ke rup men punah pratishthit kar kedarnath men apne mul svarup sadashiv men sashrir sama gaya. adishankar ne vyavharik aur parmarthik satya ko samjhaya. unhonne kaha ki vyavharik vah hai jo dikhai de raha hai, jabki parmarthik vah hai, jo vastav men sahi hai. unka kahna tha ki brahm ke alava kuch bhi nahin, sab uske rup hain. nishkam karm aur nishkam upasna se antahkaran shuddh hota hai.
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bhagavat prapti  February 2011

bhagavat prapti ke anek sadhan hain. yah marg kathin hote hue bhi jis ek matra sadhan ananyata ke dvara prapt kiya ja sakta hai, aie ,janen sahaj shabdon men nirupit sadhna ka yah svarup.

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