Zodiac is a circular belt of 360°, stretching about 9° north and 9° south of the Ecliptic (apparent path of Sun around earth) within which the planets and the moon remain in course of their movement. The zodiac is divided into 12 equal sectors, each of 30° and each sector is called a Rasi (sign). In Indian astronomy, the initial point from which the longitude of the Rasis is measured is a fixed point on the ecliptic (which is exactly opposite to the reference star CHITRA - spices 16). This means that Nirayana longitude of star Chitra will always be 180° for any Epoch. This is the basis of calculating the true Chitrapaksha Ayanamsa.
Yet again, this belt is divided in 27 equal sectors, each of 13°20' and each of such sectors called Nakshatra. Rasis and Nakshatras, though mathematical in nature, are recognised by different set of stars in the sky. The astronomical constellations, representing Rasis and Nakshatras, sometimes overlap each other and sometimes are wide apart. The tropical signs always commence from V.E.POINT, which is receding in the back ground of stars with mean motion of about 50’.3 per year.
This concept is beautifully explained by Varaha Mihira in Chapter I Shloka 4 in ‘Brihat Jataka’ as under:
“The (twelve) signs of the Zodiac are commencing with the first point of Aries and of (the asterism of) Aswini. Each sign consists nine stellar quarters. The circle formed by the 12 signs represent the head, face, breast, heart, belly, navel, abdomen, genital organ, two thighs, two bones, two ankles and two feet of “KALAPURUSHA”. (The terms) Rasi, Kshetra, Griha, Riksha, Bha, Bhavana are synonymous terms.”
This Shloka consists of 72 letters, thus indicates that “Nirayana” and “Sayana” Zodiac both consisting of 12 (twelve) signs are separating from each other by about one degree in 72 years along the ecliptic (the total Dasa periods assigned to seven planets from Sun onwards is also 72 years (5+21+7+9+10+16+4) in Kalachakra Dasa Scheme of Maharishi Parasara - BPHS - 47/33).
1. The Varga (Divisional) Charts
It is not possible to access subtle areas of the native’s life with the help of bare Sign Chart and Nakshatras. Sage Parasara teaches us sixteen different Vargas. Each Varga chart is specific in itself, and deals in some specific areas of life.
Kalyan-Varma says in ‘Saravali’ :
भवनादिपैः समस्तं जातकविहितं विचिन्तयेन्मतिमान्।
एभिर्विना न शक्यं पदमपि गन्तुं महाशास्त्रो।। 3/12।
षष्टिर्होरा त्रयंशः सोडुपदां सा द्विसप्ततिसमेता।
लिप्तानामष्टादशशतानि परिवर्तनैः स्वगृहात्।। 3/17।
In the above Shlokas, Saravali indicates that each sign is getting divided in 150 parts with the help of Shodhasvargas (the whole Zodiac is divided in 1800 parts). It is just impossible to understand or move an inch in ‘HORASHASTRA’ without the help of these Vargas.
The predictive astrology is based on three main pillars, namely,1. Planets 2. Signs3. Houses. Maharishi Parasara has precisely explained this concept to his disciple Maitraye in chapter 3, slokas 4, 5 and 6 of BPHS:“Those, celestial bodies are called the planets (Grahas) that move through the Nakshatras (or asterisms) along the Zodiac (Bhachakra). The Zodiac comprises of 27 asterisms from Aswin to Revati and also divided in 12 equal parts known as signs (Rashis) from Aries to Pisces. The Zodiac sign which contains the rising (ascending) point at the time of Birth is called Lagan (ascendant)”. Based on the ascendant and the planets joining and separating from each other, the native’s good and bad fortune is deducted”.
Parasara has given the concept of Bhavas (houses) along with 12 signs in the above narration. This is called the compartmental system of houses. In this system the whole sign in which the degree of ascendant falls is considered the first house and subsequent sign as 2nd house and so on. The longitude of the ascending point becomes the most sensitive point of the ascendant i.e.1st house, and the sensitive points of other house will be 30° apart. The sensitive point of 10th house will fall in 10th sign from ascending sign and will have the same longitude as that of the ascending point in Lagan. In this system M.C. is not considered as the Mid-point or cusp of 10th house. M.C. is however given prime-importance due to it and is widely used for many other important purposes.
Maitreya enquired from Sage Parasara:
1. O sage, I have known from you about the planets, signs and their descriptions. I want to know the details of various divisions of a sign, please narrate this to us.
वर्गान् षोडश यानाह ब्रह्मा लोकपितामहः।
तानहं सम्प्रवक्ष्यामि मैत्रोय! श्रूयतामिति।।2।।
क्षेत्रां होरा च द्रेष्काणस्तुर्याशः सप्तमांशकः।
नवांशो दशमांशश्च सूर्याशः षोडशांशकः।।3।।
विशांशो वेदयाह्नंशो भांशस्त्रिांशांशकस्ततः।
खवेदांशोक्षावेदांशः षष्ठयंशश्च ततः परम्।।4
2-4. Names of the 16 Vargas : Lord Brahma has described 16 kinds of Vargas (Divisions) of each sign. which are : Rasi, Hora, Drekkana, Chathurthamsa, Sapthamamsa, Naamsa, Dasamamsa, Dvadasamsa, Shodasamsa, Vimsamsa, Chaturvimsamsa, Sapthavimsamsa, Trimsamsa, Khavedamsa, Akshavedamsa and Shashtiamsa.
In this scheme, the nativity (sign chart) also acts as one of the Bhava chart.
The other 15 kinds of Bhava Vargas (divisional charts) are for specific purposes and these can be obtained by dividing signs (Rashis) into components and then arranging these components in a specified harmonic order.The division of any Varga chart that contains ascending degree will act as the first Bhava of that varga. Each Varga chart will have 12 Bhavas (with the exception in Hora-Varga chart)
Each house of a varga will be identified by a Zodiac sign and will be called the abode or house of the sign lord. BPHS gives clear instruction for construction of each Varga. In this manner, each sign is divided in to 150 unequal parts (the arc of largest part is 30’ and smallest is 1’40”) and each part will have specific characteristics, which could be ascertained by constructing separate divisional charts. (This also laid down the foundation of Nadi Astrology). ,
These Vargas are placed in four schemes called Shadvarga, Saptavarga, Dasavarga and Shodhasvarga. Hora-Shastra indicates resource, potential, promise and materialization of an event with the help of these Vargas.
Resource is accessed with reference to a particular bhava, its occupants ,lord , and planets associated with bhava and with their Avasthas and various kinds of strengths. Thus Sign and Bhava dasas play important role in indicating the resource available to the native at a given point of time.
Vyankatesh Sharma in ‘Sarvarth Chintmani’ has stressed the utmost importance to Shadvargas and Shashtyamsa-varga to judge the potential of the nativity.
Each of the 16 Vargas indicate the promise in some specific areas of life assigned to them. But the real potential of each sign, house and planet with whose help the promise is materialized in real life, can be judged with the help of Shadvargas. This important difference in Shadvargas and Shodhasvargas should always be remembered.
‘BRIHAT JATAKA’, deals mainly in Shadvargas.
Vimsopaka strength of 20 Rupas is divided in Shadvargas as under by Sage Parasara :
| Rasi (Sign) D-1
| Hora D-2||2|
| Drekkana D-3||4|
| Navamsa D-9||5|
| Dwadasamsa D-12||2|
| Trimsamasa D-30||1|
| Total ||20 Rupas |
15 points of Vimsopaka Bala (out of total of 20 points) is allotted to Rasi (6), Navamsa (5) and Drekkana (4). As such, Navamsa and Drekkana Vargas hold prominent and important place after Rasi chart in the Shadvarga scheme.
LIST OF SIXTEEN VARGA CHARTS
Sage Parasara has narrated 16 varga charts which are given below. Each varga chart has a specific portfolio, purpose and signification.
1. D-1, 30º, Main Sign (birth) chart
This is the basic chart. Each sign is synonym to a Bhava (house). This chart indicates physical body and its related activities. The other divisional charts are sub-divisions of this chart.
2. D-2, Hora chart
This chart deals with sustenance, mannerism, and attributes of the native. Parasara says this chart deals with Sampatti. The word Sampatti does not mean only material wealth but all means of sustenance including mannerism, nature and attitude towards life as a whole.
3. D-3, 10º, Dreshkanna
This chart deals with Co-born and sources of happiness on account of inner posture of personality (Swaroopa).
4. D-4, 7º 30’, Chathurthamsa
Turyeeamsa This chart indicates fortune and fixed assets both in the form of property and worldly attachments. Due to this reason, this chart is also called Turyeeamsa as saints do not have worldly attachments.
5. D-7, 4º 17’ 8”.57 – Saptamsa
This chart indicates progeny.
Beside this ,it indicates cosmic creative ability to maintain cosmic order. Thus, this chart is indicative of God gifted creative imagination or destructive illusion.
6. D-9 - 3º20’ Navamsa – Dharmamsa
This chart is most important in predictive Astrology. If main sign chart (D-1) is considered as body, then this chart will be synonym to heart - the basic prime-mover.This chart indicates spouse, partners and skills of the native.
7. D-10 - 3º
Dasamsa (Swargamsa)- Parasara says that this chart indicates “Mahat Phalam” (the result which indicates the standing and status of the native in society on account of the interaction of fate and action).
8. D-12 - 2º30’
Dwadasamsa (suryamsa).-Parents, elders and heritage.
9. D-16 - 1º52’30”
Shodasamsa (Kalamsa)-Vehicles, Luxuries, Happiness, Inner strength of the character.
10. D-20 - 1º30’
Vimsamsa - Spiritualism, worship of deity, leaning towards a particular sect.
11. D-24 - 1º15’
v (Siddhamsa) - Chaturvimamsa- Education, Learning, success in competition.
Bhamsa – Nakshatramsa – Saptavisamsa Strength and weakness indicated by planets.
13. D-30 - 1º
TrimsamsaIn this chart degrees are lumped together in a group and each sign is divided in five such groups.This chart indicates evils, inclination of natural traits based on Trigunas – Satwic, Rajas and Tamas.D-2 and D-30 charts are complimentary to each other and act at different planes in the life.
14. D-40 – 45’
Chatvarimsamsa (40th part of a sign) - Khavedamsa (Swavedamsa)-Matrilineal legacy.
Akashvedamsa- Patrilineal legacy
Shastyamsa Past Karma – rinanubandh, repayment of deeds of the past lives. D-1 and D-60 are complementary to each other. D-1 chart indicate when and D-60 tells why, events happen in the life of the native.
Each of the 16 divisional charts consist of 12 houses, assigned to a Zodiacal sign, which is in turn owned by a planet. (D-2 (Hora chart) and D-30 (Trimsamsa chart) are exception to this rule.
In fact Varga (harmonic) charts are considered at five levels, namely;
1.The physical plane-the first cycle covers the charts D-1 to D-12 and covers such matters as the physical body D-1, means of sustenance (sampannata) D-2, Co-bornD-3, property and fortune d-4, Power D-5, PHYSICAL LABOUR and disease D-6, Progeny D-7, Death D-8, spouse D-9, Karma D-10, gains and punishment D-11, parents D-12. However ,Parasara did not include Vargas D5,D6,D8,AND D11 in shodhash varga scheme.
2.The conscious mental plane-Twelve charts D13 to D24 are possible ,but Parasara has restricted to- Shodasamsa (16=12+4) D16ruling over mental happiness,luxuries,vehicles etc, VIMSAMSA (20=12+8)D20 ruling over occult studies,spiritualism,religiosity etc ,and Chaturvimsamsa (24=12+12) D24-RULING Siddhis,accomplishment’skill in any branch of learning and vocational studies ,success in competitions.
3.Third cycle-the sub-conscious mental plane : Out of possible D25 to D36 charts.
Parasara included , Sptavimsaamsa(27=24+3) D27 showing strength and weaknesses of the native.e.g.Sun-soul,Moon-mind,Mars-phyiscal strength,Mercury-speech,Jupiter-wisdom,Venus –happiness,Saturn-sorrow,Rahu-ego,Ketu-mistakes.Trimsamsa (30=24+6) D30-Leo and Cancer, the signs covered in D-2, are not included in D-30, which is dealing in ‘Naidhanam’ or ‘Death and Disease’.
4.Fourth level-World of spirit or pitras-Only two charts are included namely-Khavedamsa (40=36+4)D40 MATERNAL ANCESTORS, and Akshavedamsa(45=36+9)D-45 Paternal ancestors.
5.Fifth level-Past births of the native himself-The relevant chart here is ‘Shashtiamsa’ (60=48+12)D60-indicating heritage of the past Karma, which are responsible for present birth. In Shodhas Varga scheme , D60 is of prime importance. A planet in malefic shashtiamsa is not capable to give lasting good results on account of the past bad Karma.
METHOD OF JUDGEMENT OF DIVISIONAL CHARTS
1. D-1 is the basic and main birth chart. All yogas are to be judged in this chart..
2. D-1 is also one of the divisional Bhava chart. The principle of compartmental house division is to be applied, as explained above in this article. ALL VARGA CHARTS ARE BASICALLY BHAVA CHARTS.
3. Planetary aspects : All 9(Nine) planets have full aspect on 7th Rashi. Mars aspects 4th and 8th, Jup. 5th and 9th and Saturn 3rd and 10th, in addition to 7th aspect, from its placement. These aspects are also used for assessment of sambandha among planets which results in formation of Rajyogas as well as khal yogas in all Varga charts.
The 4th and 8th aspects of all the seven from Sun to Saturn also aspect with 75% strength ,which is also of considerable importance , as such planets placed in 6th and 10h house from a house or planet exert considerable influence on it
Both the nodes have influence aspects on 5th ,9th and 12th houses and do not form sambandha.
4. Rasi Dristi :
(a) All rasis aspect three Rasis.
(b) Dual Rasis aspect each other
(c) Fixed Rasis aspect moveable Rasis except adjacent rasi
(d) Moveable Rasis aspect fixed Rasis except adjacent Rasis.
5. These aspects will be applicable in all divisional charts, irrespective of their method construction.
6. All yogas will be considered in divisional charts also.
7. Functional Maleficance or Beneficence of planets is accessed in D-1 chart only. Other divisional charts make them more or less malefic or benefic depending on their placement in a house or sign, keeping the basic functional nature of the planet intact.
8. Thus, master the rules and principles as laid down by Parasara, Jaimini, Varaha Mihira, Satyachariya and other classic writers.
9. The effects of the yogas will be experienced in the Dasa periods of planets and rasis.
The following basic principles should be noted for handling D-charts.
1. The most important factors for consideration in D-charts are :
(a) Placement of planets in Kendra and Trikona houses and then in 2nd and 11th houses
(b) These placements are strengthened if the planets are in Vargottama, Exaltation, Mooltrikona, own house, friends house, or in the sign of natural benefics.
(c) The planets in 3,6,8,12 houses are of no avail even if their sign benefic.
(d) Malefics in 3rd and 6th will strengthen the chart. But there are some exceptions:
(i) Mars in 6th house in all D- Charts is auspicious, as it aspects the lagna. Other Malefics bring good results in the beginning only.
(ii) Mercury even in 8th house of D-4 charts gives good results.
(iii) Generally it is believed that Saturn's placement in 8th house is not bad. Thus, Saturn in D-8 lagna also is not considered bad
2. Even if a Planet is powerfully placed in D-1 Chart, it does not give good results if badly placed in D chart for the specific portfolio of D chart and vice versa.
- Any incident, such as marriage, joining service, birth of child - If dasa lord is placed in bad houses in concerned D-chart, may not end in happiness.
-Accession, victory in election - should be judged from D-11.
-UCHA with Neecha or any planet with his enemy - not good.
-Planet placed in 8th of D-chart does not harm if aspected by Jupiter.
-In the case of housewife- D-9 should be studied.
-In D-11 chart, a planet placed in 4th house give property and vehicles, in 7th marriage, in 10th status, in 5th progeny and so on.
-Yoga, planetary conjunction, mutual aspect, exchange in signs has its effects in D-charts also
-Yoga karaka planet of D-1 chart, will give some good effects even if debilitated in other D- charts provided is placed in a good house.
-Karaka principle is also applicable to D-charts
-OUT of all powerful positions ,the most important are
(i) Vargottama (both rasi and Bhava), Kindly refer to an article’Concept of Vargottama’ published in March 2008 issue of this Journal
(ii) Exaltation (iii) Mooltrikona (iv) Own house
(v) Digbala (vi) Placement in kendra, Trikona and 2nd and 11th houses.
- Even if planets are in exaltation, Mooltrikona and own sign, but placed in 3,6,8 and 12 houses are of not much use.
In Rasi chart, the signs which are placed in 4,5,9 and 10 houses, the planets in such signs in Vargas show merit, particularly if Kendra lords are placed in Trikona and Vice versa.
- The planets placed in Rashis, which occupy 6,8 and 12 houses in D-1 Rasi chart, loose lot of their Beneficence even if strongly placed in D-charts.e.g. if sign Cancer is falling in 6th house of D-1 chart, any planet placed in Cancer in any Varga chart will give indications of 6th house. Please study Madhya Parasari.
- If any yoga is formed in D-1 rasi chart, and such yoga also manifests in D-Charts, then these yogas will enhance the yoga results according to the portfolio of concerned D-chart(s). This creates vargottama effect.
- The conjunction of planets in D-charts modifies the effects. Guru, if not in debilitation improves the results.
- In D-charts lords of lagna and karya bhava are very important.
- A debilitated planet in D-chart gives bad effects, even if placed in good Bhavas until debilitation is not cancelled.
- If D-lagna is in vargottama, it is an indication of very good effect, provided lagna lord is well placed. If lagna lord goes to 8th house, the D-chart will give only dreamy effects. The excellent results are felt if lagna lord is strong and placed in good houses and signs.Vargottama lagna if aspected by more than one planet, will yield to yoga results.
- BHAVA VARGOTTAMA GIVE EXCELLENT RESULTS. If a planet is bhava vargottama in D-9 chart will give marriage,D-3 co-born, D-24 education etc irrespective of house placement,,
- Exalted planet if aspected by friendly planets will give excellent results (in such cases Moon , Mars , Saturn and Venus give yoga results and Sun ,Jupiter and Mercury give only good results.)
- 3rd and 8th are death like places. In D-9 to wife, in D-10 to profession etc. Death means severance. A planet in 3rd in D-10 causes retirement from service.
- 2nd house is neutral and planet placed there in gives similar results.
- If more planets aspect D-Lagna, it becomes strong.
- Benefic yogas in D-charts give immense benefit. Malefic yogas spoil the results. 2nd and 12th place from any house is very important for a Bhava.
- Similar to 2 and 12, 3-11, 4-10, 5-9, 6-8 and 1-7 places are also important.
- Argala and upchaya places hold key to prediction because Argala places intervene/influence the effect of a house and upchaya places are responsible for the upliftment of the bhava in life. However 3 and 6 position should be malefic in influence. Similarly any planet placed in a Bhava provides argala or becomes upchaya to some bhavas.
- In D-12, association of ketu with Moon or Sun is bad for parents.
- Malefics in 12,1,2 or 6,7,8 or 4,8,12 or 5,8,9 are bad for the indication of bhava. Benefics in these places do good.
- The bhava lord in a good Shashitiamsa D-60 will enhance the benefic effects and vice-versa
- The bhava whose lord is in a benefic SHODASAMSA D-16 ( Kalamsa) will flourish.