tap - vrat bhartiya sanskriti hi kya varan vartaman men vyapt sabhi sanskritiyon ka ek uchchakoti ka adarsh vrat hai. sevavrat, danavrat, dayavrat, maunavrat, kshamavrat, rashtravrat, ekadash shakti, vanyatravrat adi anekanek achrnon ki vrat sangya vyavhar men vishrut hai tathapi maharshi patanjli dvara pratipadit shauch, santosh, tap, svadhyay aur ishvar pranidhan nam se vyavaharat niyamon ke antargat tapovrat ka yahan pratipadan kiya ja raha hai. tapovrat varniya tatha karniya karm to hai hi, vrat evan kritakarm bhi hai. tapovrat dvara hi isht siddhi v kamnasiddhi sanbhav hai. svayan yagya ke dev agnidev devtaon ke pujya purohit to hain hi, vrat ke nirvighnatapurvak nishpadan ke lie shakti pradan karne ka samathrya bhi rakhte hain. vedant kahe jane vale upnishad granthon men param prabhu ko bhi sankalp rup se hi sahi; tap ki anivaryata ka yantra-tantra vivaran milta hai. prashnopnishad ka praranbh hi is prashn se hota hai ki ‘‘bhagvan kuto h va imaah prajaah prajayant iti’’ katya rishi ke prapautra kashandhi rishi ke is prashn ka uÿar dete hue maharshi pippalad kahte hain ki ‘prajakamo vai prajaptiah s tatpo'tapyat (1/4) arthat srishti utpann karne ki kamna se srishti ke svami parmatma ne (sankalp rup) tap kiya, tab srishti utpann ki. tap ki mahima ka vistar ved upnishad puranadi sabhi shastron v granthon men varnit hai. tap ka mahatva tapabal men jag srijai vidhata! tapabal vishnu bhae paritrata.. tapabal sanbhu karhin sanghara. tap ten agam n kachu sansara.. tapabal bipra sada bariara. vinh ke kop n koi rakhvara.. arthat tap ke bal se brahma jagat ko rachte hain. tap hi ke bal se vishnu sansar ka palan karne vale bane hain. tap hi ke bal se rudra sanhar karte hain. sansar men koi aisi vastu nahin jo tap se n mil sake. tap ke bal se brahman sada balvan rahte hain. unke krodh se raksha karne vala koi nahin hai. anna hajare ka tap manu shatrupa, vasudev-devki, kashyap-aditi, atri-anusuya tatha dhurav, prahlad, mira, hiranyakashayp adi ke tap prabhav ko jagat janta hai. vartaman ki bat karen, to anna hajare ka tap bhi ek udaharan hai, jiske tap ke age saÿaarurh sarkar bhi natamastak ho gayi. tap ko kabhi bhi jivan men dharan kiya ja sakta hai. aitreyopnishad men likha hai ki lokon ki rachna karne ke uprant parmatma ne socha ki lokpalon ki rachna aur karni chahie. yah sochakar parmatma ne jal men se hiranyagarbh purush ko nikalakar murtiman kiya tatha ‘tamabhyatapat’ arthat use lakshya banakar tap kiya. bahu syan prajayeyeti. s tapo'tapyat. s tapastaptva id; sarvamsrijat yadidan kin ch.’ arthat parmatma ne kamna ki ki main prakat ho jaun aur anek nam rup dharan karke bahut ban jaun. yah sochakar parmatma ne tap kiya aur tap karke yah jo kuch dikhayi de raha hai is sabki rachna ki. itna hi kyon? shvetashvatro- panishad men to yahan tak likh diya gaya hai ki tap ke prabhav se aur parmatma ki kripa se rishi shvetashvatar ne brahm ko jana- tapahprabhavad devaprasadachch brahma h shvetashvatro'th. (6 . 21) pratit hota hai ki prabhu ki kripa bhi tabhi prapt hoti hai, jab tap ka prabhav hota hai. shrimadbhagavat men to dharm ke char padon men tap ko sarvopri sthan diya gaya hai- tapah shauchan daya satyamiti padaah krite kritaah. (1 . 7 . 24) itna hi nahin, brahm ki pratham srishti brahma ke dvara pratham srisht brahman samaj ka niahshreyas karne vale do hi taÿv shrimadbhagavat men bataye gaye hain- tap aur vidya. ye donon vinyshil brahmanon ke lie to kalyanaprad hain, kintu durvinit ke pas pahunchakar ye hi donon anishtakari ho jate hain. devi parvati ka tap mahakvi kalidas ne apne ‘kumar sanbhv’ mahakavya men bhagvti parvati ke vishay men likha hai ki jab parvati ne pinaki shiv dvara kamdev ko apne samaksh bhasmasat hote dekha to unhonne tap ke dvara tapasvi shiv ko anukul banane ka prayas kiya. sach bhi to hai ki aisa prem aur aisa pati tap ke bina prapt nahin ho sakta. grishm, varsha tatha shit ritu men gaurishikhar par uma ka tap vastutah bare se bare tapasviyon ko bhi chakit kar dene vala hai. parvati ne grishm ritu men kathor tap karte hue apne charon or agni prajvalit kar li. jyeshth ke mahine men bahar khare hokar surya ki or taktki lagakar dekhte rahna aur fir bhi chehre par pavitra muskarahat banaye rakhna yah devi uma ka hi kam tha, anya ka nahin- parvati ke is prakar ke grishm tap ke uprant varsha kalin tap ka kram ata hai. akash ke surya aur prithvi ki agni rashi se nikam tapt devi parvati ne varsha kal ke aranbh men prithvi ke sath garam sans to chori hi, parvati ki sakhi bhi us samay ke tap men unka sath n de saki. din-rat ke us tap ki sakshini keval ratriyan thin, jo avashyakta parne par kah sakengi ki devi parvati ne kathor tapah sadhna ki thi. bina kisi chaya ke ek sthan par shila ke upar baithakar parvati aisa tap kar rahi hain, jahan jhanjhavat ke sath musladhar varsha ho rahi hai. bich-bich men tarpti hui bijli ke rup men ankhen kholakar ratriyan hi unke mahatap ki gavahi dene ko vahan khari hui thin. varshakal ke is mahatap ne shakti rupa parvati ko n keval ekakini bana diya hai, apitu sadhna ke nikat bhi la diya hai. shit-ritu ka bhishan tap devi parvati ke parvatakar sahas ka pratyaksh parichay de gaya. jare ki hemanta- ritu, usmen prakhar paush mas ki barfili hava, usmen bhi bhishan ratrikal. itni viprit paristhitiyon men bhi uma ki avichal lakshya sadhna ko koi nishthavan rachnakar hi chitrit kar sakta hai. parvati ne pani men khare rahakar atyan barfili havaon vali paushmas ki ratriyon ko ratri men alg-alag ho jane vale chakravak-yugal par sahanubhuti purvak kripa karte hue bitaya. is prakar tinon rituon ki atyant viprit paristhitiyon ko sahte hue parvati ka mahatap lakshyonmukh hi nahin, lakshyabhimukh ho gaya. bhagvan svayan brahmachari ka bhesh banakar gaurishikhar par pahunch gaye. anek prabal tarkon-vitarkon ke anantar uma ki mahniya mahÿaa sarthak hui. yah kahte hue ki baron ki burai karne vala hi nahin, burai sunne vala bhi doshi mana jata hai, parvati ne jaise hi vahan se uthne ka prayas kiya. chandramauli bhagvan shankar kah uthe- he devi! aj se main tapadvara kharida gaya tumhara das ban gaya hun. bhagvan ka aisa kahna tha ki parvati ka sanpurn tapasya ke samay ka kasht ekadam dur ho gaya. thik hi to hai- fal pane ke pashchat klesh sharir men navta ka hi sanchar karta hai, durbalata ka nahin. bhagvti parvati ke tinon rituon ke tap ne bahuvachan ka rup dharan karke bhagvan chandramauli se bhi svamukh se ‘kritastapobhiah’ yah bahuvchnant pad hi kahlaya hai, ekvchnant nahin. is prakar nibhrrant rup se kaha ja sakta hai ki ‘vrat’ shabd yadyapi vividh kshetriya kartavya karmon ka dyotan karta hai, tathapi yah shabd multah tap ki hi dhvani sankramit karta hai. tap bhagvan ki or unmukh hone tatha bhagvan sanbandh hone ka pramukh sadhan hai. tap ke dvara ishtasiddhi sunishchit hai. uprokt ka chintan karte hue yahi nishkarsh niklta hai ki tap ke dvara hi manav, rishi, muni, saja, danav, premi bhakt mahanta ko prapt hue. jinhonne tap ke dvara prapt vastu ka sanrakshan kiya, lokakalyan men lagaya unki kirti tatha jinhonne tap dvara vastu ka bhog kiya, anacharan kiya, amaryadit karya kie unki apkirti jagat vidit hai. atah tap se prapt siddhiyon ka sadupyog hi uÿam hai. navanbar mas ke pramukh vrat tyohar surya shashthi (1 navanbr): surya shashthi ke din bhakt jan bhagvan surya ke nimitt vrat puja adi karte hain, is din pavitra nadi, sarovron men snan karak bhagvan surya ka pujan karne se mahan punya fal ki prapti hoti hai. lokachar ke anusar kuch pranton men yah parva chath ke rup men bhi manaya jata hai. dev pravodhni ekadshi (6 navanbr): kartik shukla ekadshi ko hari prabodhini nam se jana jata hai. asharh shukla ekadshi se kartik shukla ekadshi paryant tak bhagvan vishnu narayan kshir sagar men sheshnag ki shayya par char mas tak shayan karte hain. kartik shukla ekadshi ko ratri k samay hari ko jagane ke lie stotra path, hari sankirtan, bhajan, bhagavatkatha shravan, gayan, ghanta, shankh, mridang, vina vadan, nritya adi se bhagvan ko jagana chahie. is din vrat dan karne se vishesh punyafal ki prapti hoti hai. vaikunth chaturdashi vrat (9 navanbr): kartik shukla chaturdashi ‘‘vaikunth chaturdashi’’ nam se prasiddh hai. pauranik katha anusar kashi ke manikarnika ghat par bhagvan vishnu bhagvan shankar ki puja karne ke lie ae. unhonne sahasra kamlon se bhagvan shiv ki puja karne ka sankalp kiya. puja karte-karte ek kamal ki kami par gai. bhagvan kamal nayan vishnu ne apni ek ankh nikal kar hajarven kamal ke rup men shiv ko arpit kar di. bhagvan shankar ne vishnu ki ananya bhakti ko dekhakar unhen sansar ke upkar ke lie sudarshan chakra pradan kiya tatha kaha ki jo log brahmamuhurt men is din meri puja karenge unhen vaikunth lok ki prapti hogi. iske atirikt is din niahsantan danpti agar sanpurn ratri paryant kisi siddh shiv mandir, tirth adi mane khare hokar hathon men dipak jalaen to unhen bhagvan ki kripa se santan ki prapti hogi. kartik purnima (10 navanbr): kartik purnima ke din kartik snan ki samapti hoti hai. is din pavitra tirthon men ganga snan, dan, yagya, vrat adi karne se mahan punya fal ki prapti hoti hai. iske atirikt is din sikh dharm sanpraday men shri gurunanak dev ka pavitra janm divas bhi bari shraddha se manaya jata hai.
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shani visheshank  November 2011

shani ka mahatva evan manav jivan men shani ka yogdan tula rashi men shani ka gochar evan iska barah rashiyon par prabhav shani dosh shanti hetu jyotishiya upay

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