पर्व निर्णय

parva nirny  

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prashnah hindu parvon ke nirnay hetu kaun-kaun se shastra pramanik hain evan nirnay sindhu v anya shastron ke adhar par mukhya parva jaise- janmashtami, shivratri, dipavli, dashhra, holi, raksha bandhan, bhaiya duj, dhan teras evan anya parvon ke tithi nirnay hetu kya shastriya niyam v adhar hain? sandarbh sahit vistrit jankari den. charon varn tatha charon ashramon ke achar-vichar, sanpurn lok-vyavhar, sanskar, tithi nirnay, parvotsav, vratanushthan, dan-dakshina kal vigyan, papon ke prayashchit vidhan, grahan kal sangyan, fal prapti parigyan adi vishayak shastriya niyam v adhar ved-upved, nishad-upnishad, puran, up-puran, niti-smriti, gita-darshan, shastra-sanhita adi men bhinna-bhinn sthalon men varnan prishthankit hain. kuch men kuch vishay to kuch men kuch. uprokt varnit kisi bhi ek dharmashastra athva kavyagranth men sab vishyon ki jankari upalabdh nahin hai. kabhi-kabhi hindu parvon ke tithi nirnay hetu shastriya niyam v adhar vishyantargat vishesh asmanjas ki sthiti utpann ho jati hai. isi duvidha ko dur karne ke lie dharmacharyon aur visheshagyaon ne sanpurn dharmashastra aur kavyagranthon ka sar sangrah karke bare-bare nibandhon ki rachna ki hai. unmen ‘krityakalpataru’ aur ‘hemadri’ adi bare-bare nibandhon hain. ye itne brihat hain ki sarvasadharan ki samajh aur pahunch se pare hanai. un nibandhon ke brihdakar ko dekhakar hi prasiddh smriti-niti shastra gyata shrikashivasi mahamhopadhyay kamlakar bhattaji ne un brihat nibandhon tatha hindu dharmagranthon-kavyashastron ka sar sangrah karke samast vishisht vishyon se paripurn ‘nirnayasindhu’ namak kavya shastra ki rachna ki . yah shastra dharm nibandhon men bahut utkrisht samjha jata hai. ‘dharm sindhu’ namak ek vatrtik sanskrit granth ko ‘nirnayasindhu’ ka hi tikarup samjha jata hai. ataev nishkarsh yah hai ki vidyaman desh, kal aur paristhiti men vishyantargat pramanikta ki drishti se sarvadharmashastron men ‘nirnayasindhu’ hi shreyaskar hai. janmashtami padmapuran- uttarakhand shrikrishnavtar ki katha men varnan milta hai ki ‘‘dasvan mahina ane par bhadon mas ki krishna ashtami ko adhi rat ke samay shri hari ka avtar hua.’’ mahabharat -khilbhag harivansh- vishnu parva - 4/17 ke anusar jab bhagvan shrikrishn prakat hue, us samay abhijit namak muhutrt tha, rohini nakshatra ka yog hone se ashtami ki vah rat jayanti kahlati thi aur vijay namak vishisht muhutrt vyatit ho raha tha.’’ shrimadbhagvt- 10/3/1 ke anusar bhadramas, krishn paksh, ashtami tithi, rohini nakshatra aur arddh ratri ke samay bhagvan vishnu mata devki ke garbh se prakat hue. garg sanhita golokkhand-11/22-24 ke anusar ‘‘bhadrapad mas, krishn paksh, rohini nakshatra, harshana-yog, ashtami tithi, adhi rat ke samay, chandroday kal, vrishabh lagn men mata devki ke garbh se sakshat shri hari prakat hue.’’ brahmavaivart puran- shrikrishn janmakhand-7 ke anusar adhi rat ke samay rohini nakshatra aur ashtami tithi ke sanyog se jayanti namak yog sanpann ho gaya tha. jab ardh chandrama ka uday hua tab bhagvan shrikrishn divya rup dharan karke mata devki ke hriday kamal ke kosh se prakat ho gae. brahmavaivart puran- shrikrishn janmakhand-8 ke anusar saptami tithi ke din vrati purush ko havishyann bhojan karke sanyam purvak rahna chahie. saptami ki ratri vyatit hone par arunoday ki bela men uthakar vrati purush pratah kalik kritya purn karne ke anantar snanpurvak sankalp karen. us sankalp men yah uddeshya rakhna chahiye ki aj main shri krishn priti ke liye vrat evan upvas karunga. manvadi tithi prapt hone par snan aur pujan karne se vahi fal kotiguna adhik hota hai. us tithi ko jo pitron ke liye jal matra arpan karta hai, vah mano lagatar sau varshon tak pitron ki tripti ke liye gaya shraddh ka sanpadan kar leta hai, ismen sanshay nahin hai. ataev spasht hai ki saptamiyukt ashtami ko tyag dena chahie aur ashtami yukt navmi ko shrikrishn janmashtami vratopvas karna chahiye. nirnay sindhu men rachnakar shri kamlakar bhattaji ne vanhi puran, garur puran, skand puran, bhavishya puran, brahm puran, brahmand puran, brahmavaivart puran, padmapuran, vishnu dharm, vashishth sanhita, kalpataru, hemadri, vyas, madhav, madn-ratn, nirnayamrit, anantabhatt, gaur, maithil adi granthon ka paraspar virodhi maton ne ullekh kiya hai. yahan bhi aur anyatra bhi sadharntah is vrat ke vishay men do mat vidyaman hain. smatrt log arddh ratri ke samay rohini nakshatra ka yog hone par saptami sahit ashtami ke din bhi vratopvas karte hain. lekin vaishnavon ko saptami ka kinchit matra bhi sparsh manya nahin. unke yahan saptami ka sparsh hone par dvitiya divas hi vratotsav hetu manya hai. chahe us din ashtami kshan matra ke liye hi kyon n ho. vallabhacharya, chaitanyamhaprabhu, nimbarkacharya aur ramanand sampradayi vaishnav to purva din arddh ratri se kuch pal bhi saptami adhik ho, to bhi ashtami ko upvas n karke navmi ko hi upvas karte hain. ramanuj sanpraday vale nakshatra ko hi pradhanta dete hain. unke yahan tithi ka koi mahatva nahin. shiv ratri: shiv puran-vidyeshvarsanhita khand-10 men bhagvan brahma aur bhagvan vishnu ke prashn ke uttar men bhagvan maheshvar ke adesh vidyaman hain ki ‘‘mere darshana-pujan ke liye chaturdashi tithi nishith vyapini athva pradosh vyapini (arddharatri vyapini athva sandhyakal vyapini) leni chahiye; kyonki paravartini tithi se sanyukt chaturdashi ki hi prashansa ki jati hai.’’ ‘‘nishithsanyuta ya tu krishnapakshe ch chaturdashi. uposhya sa tithiah sarveah shivsayujyakarika..’’ -skandapuran- maheshvarkhand-kedarkhand-33/92 ‘‘krishn paksh men chaturdashi ardharatri vyapini ho, usmen sabko upvas karna chahiye. vah bhagvan shiv ka sayujya pradan karne vali hai.’’ skand puran- nagar khand-uttararddha-221 men prishthankit hai ki ‘‘magh mas ke krishn paksh men jo chaturdashi tithi ati hai, uski ratri hi shiv ratri hai.’’ yahan amavasyant mas ki drishti se magh mas kaha gaya hai. jahan krishn paksh men mas ka aranbh aur purnima par uski samapti hoti hai, uske anusar falgun krishn paksh chaturdashi men yah shivratri ka vrat hota hai. nirnay sindhu men uddhrit narad sanhita aur ishan sanhita ka udaharan bhi yahi samjhna chahie. lingpuran men bhagvan shiv ka spasht kathan hai ki falgun ke krishn paksh ki chaturdashi tithi ko savdhan hokar krittivaseshvar ling men jo mahadev ki puja karte hain; unko main sadaiv mukt aur rogrhit paramasthan deta hun. nishkarsh yah hai ki falgun mas ke krishn paksh ki arddharatrivyapini chaturdashi hi manya hai. udahrnarth dinank 02 march 2011 ko shivratri vrat hai. sulabh sandarbh hetu kripya vibhinn panchangon ka avlokan karen. dipavli: ‘‘kartik krishna chaturdashi ko yadi amavasya bhi ho aur usmen svati nakshatra ka yog ho to usi din dipavli hoti hai.’’ yah nirnay skand puran-vaishnavakhand kartik mas-mahatmya- trayodshi se lekar dipavli tak ke utsav kritya ka varnana’ shirshak antargat prishthankit hai. padmapuran- uttarakhand-124 ke anusar kartik krishnachturdashi ko ratri ke aranbh men bhinna-bhinn sthanon par manohar dip lagane chahiye. brahma, vishnu aur shiv adi mandiron men, gupt grihon men, devvrikshon ke niche, sabhabhavan men, nadiyon ke kinare, chahardivari par bagiche men, bavli ke tat par, gali-kuchon men, grihodyan men tatha ekant ashvashalaon men evan gajshalaon men bhi dip jalane chahiye. is prakar rat vyatit hone par amavasya ko pratahkal snan karen aur bhaktipurvak devtaon tatha pitron ka pujan karen. nirnayasindhu-dvitiya parichched ke anusar divodasiya men brahmapuran ka kathan hai ki katrtik ki kshamavastha yukt chaturdashi ko dipdan karne se manushya yammarg ke andhkar se chut jata hai. is prakar spasht hai ki jis din suryast pashchat ek ghari adhik tak amavasya rahe us din dipavli mani jani chahiye. donon din sayankal men ho to dusre din aur keval pahle din hi sayankal men amavasya ho to pahle din dipavli manna uchit hai. is utsav ke sath svati nakshatra ka yog ho jay to sone par suhaga mana gaya hai. jaise ki is varsh 5 navanbar 2010 ko hai. sulabh sandarbh hetu upalabdh kisi hindu panchang ka kripya avlokan karen. dashhra: hemadrau vratkande kashyapah ‘‘udye dashmi kinchitsanpurnokadshi yadi. shravanakrshe yada kale sa tithirvijyarbhida.. shravanakrshe tu purnayan kakutsth pasthato yatah. ullanghyeyuah simanan taddinakrshe n to naraah ..’’ -nirnayasindhu-dvitiya parichched hemadri ke vratkand men kashyap ne likha hai ki yadi udykal men dashmi kinchit matra bhi ho aur age sanpurn ekadshi ho tab yadi aprahn samay par shravan nakshatra ho to vah vijyadshmi kahlati hai jisse shravan nakshatra men dashmi ke din shriramchandraji ne prasthan kiya hai. isse manushya us din shravan nakshatra men gram ki sima ko langhan karen. vijyadshmi ke vishay men adhisankhya logon ka yah niradhar vichar hai ki yah utsav bhagvan shriramchandra ji ke lanka-vijay ke ulakshya men praranbh hua hai, lekin ved-puranon evan anya hindu dharmashastron men bhi kahin aisa ullekh nahin milta. isliye ise lanka vijay ka din manna to kalpana matra hi hai. nirnay sindhu ke uprokt ullekh se yah siddh hota hai ki bhagvan shriramchandraji ne is din lanka-vijay ke liye prasthan kiya tha. ataev vastav men yah din lanka-vijay ke liye prasthan divas hai. bhagvan shri ramchandraji dvara lanka-vijay bharat varsh ka ek sabse bara parakram mana jata hai. kyonki unki yah yatra isi din praranbh hui thi isliye sada ke liye yah din bhartvasiyon ke liye vijay muhutrt ban gaya. yahi is dashhra utsav ki sabse bari visheshta hai. ashvin ke shukla paksh men suryoday ke samay yadi dashmi tithi ho to use pandit vijyadshmi kahte hain. yahan yah mukhya arth hai ki aprahn men puja adi ke kathan se karm men aprahn mukhya samay hai aur pradosh gaun hai. jaise is varsh 17 aktubar 2010 ko dashhra hai. sulabh sandarbh hetu upalabdh hindu panchang ka kripya avlokan karen. holi: falgun ki purnima ko holi kahte hain. yah sandhyavyapini grahan karni chahie. nirnay sindhu-dvitiya parichched ke anusar brahmavaivartapuran, bhavishyapuran, nirnayamrit, jyotirnibandh, hemadri, madanaratn aur narad ke anusar falgun mas ki purnima pradosh vyapini leni chahiye. jaise dinank 19 march 2011 ko holi hai. sulabh sandarbh hetu upalabdh panchangon ka kripya avlokan karen. raksha bandhn: nirnay sindhu- dvitiya parichched ke anusar bhavishyapuran, brahmavaivartapuran, kalpataru, hemadri, madanaratn aur nirnayamrit men prishthankit hai ki aprahn vyapini shravan purnima ko rakshabandhan namak vratotsav manana chahiye. yahi siddh hai. rakshabandhan bhadra (dvitiya, saptami, dvadshi) men nahin manana chahiye. bhaiya duj: nirnay sindhu dvitiya parichched ke anusar bhaiya duj ka vratotsav aprahnavyapini kartik shukla paksh dvitiya ko manana chahiye. apne kathan ki pushti men rachyita ne bhavishya puran, skand puran, brahmand puran, hemadri, nirnayamrit adi ka udaharan prastut kiya hai. dhanters: nirnayasindhu-dvitiya parichched men ullekh milta hai ki nirnayamrit men skand puran ka vakya hai ki kartik vadi (krishn paksha) teras ko ghar se bahar pradosh ke samay yamdipak jalaye to akalmrityu nasht hoti hai; uska mantra yah hai ki mrityu, pash, dand, kal, shyamashit yamraj trayodshi ke dipdan se mere upar prasann hon. ataev kartik mas, krishn paksh, pradoshavyapini trayodshi tithi ko dhanteras manana chahiye. yadyapi dhanteras ka vratotsav multah yamraj ko prasann karne hetu is din sandhyakal men ek dipak jalakar mukhya dvar par rakha jata hai tatha isi bhanti dipavli mahotsav ka shrignesh kiya jata hai tathapi iska namakaran ayurved ke adi pravatrtak maharshi athva adhidevta bhagvan dhanvatri ke jayanti ke karan hi hua aisa pratit hota hai. vartaman men yah dhanteras aushdhi khadyann pakane ka patra kharidne vala tyohar ka svarup dharan kar liya hai. anya parvon ke tithi nirnaya: padm puran-uttarakhand ke anusar yadi amavasya athva purnima sath dand ki hokar din rat avikal rup se rahe aur dusre din pratipda men bhi uska kuch ansh chala gaya ho to vah ‘pakshavardhini’ mani jati hai. us paksh ki ekadshi ka bhi yahi nam hai. vah das hajar ashvamedh yagyaon ke saman fal dene vali hoti hai. jab shukla paksh ki ekadshi ko ‘punarvasu’, nakshatra ho to ‘jaya’, jab shukla paksh ki dvadshi ko ‘shravan ‘nakshatra’ ho to ‘vijya’, jab shukla paksh ki dvadshi ko ‘rohini’ nakshatra ho to ‘jayanti’, jab shukla paksh ki dvadshi ko ‘pushya’ nakshatra ho to ‘papnashini’ tithi kahlati hain. ye sabhi vratotsav papnashini hain. jab ek hi din-rat (suryoday se suryoday tak) ekadshi, dvadshi aur trayodshi ho to use ‘trisprisha’ samjhna chahiye. usmen dashmi ka yog nahin hona chahiye. kisi bhi mahine ya kisi bhi paksh men aye, yah ‘trisprisha’ vrat charon purusharthon ko dene vali hai. sabhi mas ki sabhi pakshon ke ekadshi vrat unke namanukul tatha charon purusharth fal pradan karne vale hain. dhyan rahe ki koi bhi ekadshi vrat ekadshi vraton ka vivaran nimnankit hain. mas ka nam krishnapaksha shukla paksha 1. marg shirsha utpatti ekadshi mokshada ekadshi 2.. paush safla ’’ putrada ’’ 3. magh shattila ’’ jaya ’’ 4. falgun vijya ’’ amlki ’’ 5. chaitra papmochini ’’ kamda ’’ 6. vaishakh varuthini ’’ mohini ’’ 7. jyeshtha apra ’’ nirjara ’’ 8. asharh yogini ’’ shayini ’’ 9. shravn kamika ’’ putrada ’’ 10. bhadrapd aja ’’ padma ’’ 11. ashvin indira ’’ papankush ’’ 12. kartik rama ’’ prabodhini ’’ 13. purushottama kamla ’’ kamda ’’ (adhik mas) nirnay sindhu - dvitiya parichched ke anusar puransmuchchay men likhi hain ki chaitra shukla pratipda ke din matsya, vaishakh amavasya- kurm, shravan shukla shashthi varah, vaishakh shukla chaturdashi- nrisinh, bhadrapad shukla dvadshi-vaman, vaishakh shukla tritiya-parshuram, chaitra shukla navmi-shriramchandra ji, bhadrapdkrishn ashtami - shrikrishnaji, ashvin shukla dashmi-budh aur shravan shukla shashthi-kalki avtar hue/honge. vaman, parshuram aur shriramchandraji madhyahn, matsya aur varah-aprahn, kurm, narsinh, budh aur kalki-sandhyakal tatha shrikrishnachandraji arddh ratri ke samay avtrit hue. samanyatah uprokt parvon ke janmakal vyapini tithi ko hi manaya jata hai. yahi vidhi ka vidhan hai aur yahi tithi nirnay.
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muhurt visheshank  November 2009

manav jivan men muhurt ki upyogita, kya muhurt dvara bhagya badla ja sakta hai, muhurt nikalne ki shastrasammat vidhi, vivah men muhurt ka mahatva, shraddh, chaturmas, malmas, dhanu ya min ka surya ashubh kyon tatha ast grah kal kaise ashubh ? ki jankari prapti ki ja sakti hai.

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