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adhik mas evan kshay mas ki ganna  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 5740 |  
adhik mas evan kshay mas ki ganna prashna: adhik mas evan kshay mas ki ganna kaise hoti hai? ye kab-kab ate hain aur ismen kaun se karm tyajya hain aur kaun se karm kie ja sakte hain? mas, mah, mahina kya hai? chandra, saur, savan, nakshatra ye 4 prakar ke mas hote hain. vaise 9 prakar ke mason v varsh ka vichar prayah jyotish ke siddhant granthon men milta hai. kintu chaturbhivryavharo'tra surya siddhant vachan ke adhar par chandra, saur, savan aur nakshatra mas ka vyavhar hota hai. ek rashi ka jab surya bhog kar leta hai, to saur mas hota hai, arthat surya ki sankranti ke bad ke sankraman ke purva sancharan samay tak surya ka mas saur mas kahlata hai. do amavasyaon ke madhya ka kal, arthat shukla pratipda se amavasya ki samapti kal tak chandra mas hota hai, arthat 30 tithiyon ke bhog kal ko chandra mas kahte hain. ek nakshatra men chandrama ke yog ki avriÿia se jab 27 nakshatron ka bhog chandrama kar leta hai, to chandra mas hota hai. suryoday se suryoday purva tak ke samay ko savan din kahte hain. is prakar 30 udyon ka savan mas hota hai. chandra mas chaitradisangyashchandranan masanan sanprakirtitaah. shrautasmartakriyaah sarvaah kuryashchandramasartashu.. chandrastu dvividho maso darshatah paurnimantimah. devarthe paurnamasyanto darshatah pitrikarmani.. ek purnima se dusri purnima tak, ya fir ek amavasya se dusri amavasya tak chandra mas hota hai. ek varsh men 12 chandra mas hote hain. unke nam is prakar hain- chaitra, vaishakh, jyeshth, asharh, shravan, bhadrapad, ashvin, kartik, margashirsh, paush, magh aur falgun. chandra mas 29 divas, 31 ghatika aur 50.124 palon ka arthat 30 tithiyon ka hota hai. is hisab se ek chandra varsh se 30ga12=360 tithiyan hoti hain. saur mas meshadi saurmasanste bhanvti ravisankramat. madhushch madhvashchaiv shukra shuchirtho nabhah.. nabhasyashchesh urjashch sahashchath sahasyakah. tapastapasyah kramtah saurmasaah prakirtita.. ravi meshadi 12 rashiyon se bhraman karta hai. in rashiyon men jis mas ravi ki sankranti hoti hain usi ko saur mas kahte hain. ek varsh men 12 saur mas hote hain. unke nam is prakar hain- madhu, madhav, shukra, shuchi, nabh, nabhasya, ish, urj, sah, sahasya, tap, tapasya. ek saur varsh 365 din, 15 ghatika aur 23 palon ka hota hai. ek chandra varsh men kul 371 tithiyan hoti hain. chandra varsh aur saur varsh men har varsh 11 tithiyon ka antar hota hai. yah antar jab 30 tithiyon tak pahunch jae, tab ek chandra mas adhik hota hai, arthat us sal 13 chandra mas hote hain. mal mas adhik mas asankrantirmanto yo masashchetso adhimaskah. malmasahriyo shreyah prayashchaidisaptasu.. dvantrish˜irgatairmasairdinaiah shodshbhistatha. dhatikanan chatushkon patatyadhikmaskah.. chandra mas aur mas donane ka mel bithane ke lie jis kisi amant mas men ravi sankranti nahin hoti, us mas ko adhik mas ya mal mas kaha jata hai. chaitra se ashvin tak jo 7 mas hote hain, unhin men se koi adhik mas hota hai. kabhi-kabhi falgun bhi adhik mas ho sakta hai. lekin paush aur magh kabhi adhik mas nahin ho sakte. lagabhag 32 mas aur 16 din ki kalavdhi ke bad, arthat har tisre sal adhik mas ho sakta hai. ek bar aya hua adhik mas 19 sal ke bad fir se ata hai. mal mas dhundhne ki vidhi shalivahan shak ko 12 se guna kar gunanafal ko 19 se bhag diya jata hai. jo sankhya shesh bache vah agar 9 ya 9 se kam ho, to us sal mal mas parta hai. isi prakar se kaun sa mas mal mas hoga, yah pata lagane ke lie yah dekhna chahie ki shesh bachi hui sankhya 5 ya 5 se jyada hai ya nahin. yadi ho, to us sankhya men se ek ghata diya jata hai. jo sankhya bachti hai use chaitra se gin kar adhik mas ka pata lagaya jata hai. yah niyam sthul hai. sukshm ganit karne ke bad hi purnarup se sahi nirnay liya ja sakta hai. kshay mas dvisankrantiah kshayakhyahsyat kadachit kartikatraye. yugmakhye s tu tatrabde hyadhimasadvayan bhavet.. jis kisi amant mas men 2 ravi sankrantiyan hoti hain us mas ko kshay mas kahte hain. kartik, margashirsh aur paush men se hi koi kshay mas hota hai. in tinon mason men ravi ki gati tej hoti hai. vrishchik, dhanu aur makar rashiyon ko par karne men ravi ko chandra mas se bhi kam samay lagta hai. aisi sthiti men ek chandra mas men 2 ravi sankrantiyan ho sakti hain. islie vahan kshay mas hota hai. kshay mas se pahle aur bad men ek ek mal mas hota hai. kshay mas 141 sal ke antral par ata hai. kintu kabhi kabhi 19 sal ke bad bhi a sakta hai. hindu mason ke namakaran purnima ke chandra nakshatra ke adhar par sanbandhit chandra mas ka namakaran hota hai. jaise jis mas ki purnima ko chitra nakshatra ata hai, uska nam chaitra par jata hai. isi prakar vishakha se vaishakh tatha jyeshtha se jeth adi. saur mas ki pravriÿia surya jis samay kisi rashi men pravesh karta hai, us samay se hoti hai aur jis amant chandra mas men sankranti hoti hai, usi chandra mas ke adhar par sanbandhit sankrantijanya saur mas ka namakaran hota hai. atah mesh sankrantijanya saur mas ka nam vaishakh hua. isi prakar vrish ka jyeshth (jeth), mithun ka asharh, kark ka shravan, sinh ka bhadrapad, kanya ka ashvin (kvar) tula ka kartik, vrishchik ka margashirsh (aghn), dhanu ka paush, makar ka magh, kunbh ka falgun aur min ka chaitra hua. hindu jyotish men nakshatra saur varsh ka praranbh mesh ki sankranti se tatha kranti patik saur varsh ka vasant krantipat (21 marcha) se hota hai. isi prakar chandra varsh ka praranbh chaitra shukla pratipda se hota hai. surya ki spasht kahen to athva prithvi ki gati ki vichitrata ke karan aisa sanbhav ho jata hai. surya kabhi ek rashi par karne men 29 dinon se thora adhik samay leta hai aur kabhi yah sima 31 dinon se bhi adhik hoti hai. dhanu ke adhe bhag par rahte samay surya ki gati tivratam arthat 61ah10’’ vikla prati din rahti hai. dhire-dhire ghatte hue yahi gati mithun ke madhya men nyunatam 57ah12’’ vikla ho jati hai. adhikatam gati se surya ek rashi ko 29.22 savan dinon men hi par kar leta hai, jabki chandramas ka madhyaman 29.53 din hai. vastav men grah tivratam gati ke samay apni kaksha men prithvi ke nikatatam bindu (chmatapahamama) par hota hai. aur nyunatam gati ke samay mandochch (.chavahamam ) prithvi se apni kaksha ke duratam bindu par hota hai. surya ki barah sankrantiyan prayah 29.25 din se lekar 31.5 din men hoti hanai, jabki chandra mas 29.53 madhya savan din ka hota hai. adhik v kshay mason ki ganna sadaiv spasht arthat sahi manon se ki jati hai. atah adhik mas to kramshah 32.5 chandra mason ke bad ata rahta hai, lekin kshay mas kabhi kabhi hi ata hai. surya ki gati ke vrishchik, dhanu v makar rashiyon men kramshah tivratar se tivratam hone ke karan kshay mas jab bhi hoga inse sanbandhit mason men arthat kartik, margashirsh ya paush men hi hoga. kab-kab ate hain mal (adhi) evan kshay mas vastavik adhik mas ka nishchay multah dinon ya surya ke anshon ko hi ginakar kiya jata hai. kuch granthon men ek saral vidhi di gai hai, jiske adhar par purvanuman dvara lagaya ja sakta hai ki kaun se varsh men, kis mas men adhik mas parne ki sanbhavna hai. iske lie maghi amavasya v angreji (sayn) tarikh dekhi jati hai. yadi amavasya 14 se 24 tarikh ke bachi parti hai, to agle varsh men adhikmas hota hai. kis mas ko adhik mas mana jaega iska bhi vidva anon ne nirdharan kiya hai. jab kabhi krishn paksh ki panchmi ko surya rashi badlta hai uske agle varsh men jis mas men surya panchmi (krishn paksh ki) badle uske pahle ka mas adhik mas hoga. udaharanasvarup dinank 15 jun 2006, asharh chaturthi ko 9.45 par surya mithun rashi men pravisht hua. atah san 2007 vi. sanvat 2064 jyeshth mas adhik mas hoga. adhimas nakshatrik saur varsh ka man dinadi aur chandra varsh ka man dinadi 365,22,1,24 hota hai. atah chandra varsh ki varshik kami in donon ka antar dinadi 10,53,30,6 hai. ab trairashik kriya karne par ki 1 varsh men to itne dinadi ki kami ai to kitne varshon men pure 1 chandra mas ki arthat dinadi 29,31,50,7 ki kami uÿar men aegi ki varshadi 2,8,16,4 ke kal ek adhi mas hoga. yah ganna madhyam man ke anusar hai. spasht man se ukt kal men kami-beshi ho jati hai. ab us paristhiti ka avlokan karen, jiske karan adhimas hota hai. aur mason men kuch mas chandra mas se bare aur kuch chandra mas se chote bhi hote hain. jo saur mas chandra mas se bare hote hain, unmen kabhi-kabhi 2 amavasyant par jate hain. ek saur mas ke aranbh ke sath-sath ya unke kuch hi kal piche aur dusra us saur mas ki samapti ke purva, arthat pahle amavasyant tak pahli sankranti nahin hoti hai. is dasha men ek or chandra mas jora jata hai, jo adhimas kahlata hai tatha uska bhi nam pahli amavasya vale chandra mas ke saman hi rakha jata hai. kahne ka tatparya yah hai ki ek nam ke 2 chandra mas hote hain. adhimas hamesha chaitra, vaishakh, jyeshth, asharh, bhadrapad evan ashvin in 7 mahon men se hi hua karte hain. jaise vikram sanvat 1991 men saur vaishakh (mesh) mas men 2 amavasyant pare, ek uske praranbh ke kud ghatiyon ke pashchat aur dusra uski samapti ke ek din purva, arthat pahli amavasya tak to pahli (mesh) ki sankranti ho gai. kintu dusri amavasya tak dusri vrish sankranti nahin hui. atah ek aur chandra mas aya, jo adhimas kahlaya tatha uska nam pahli amavasya vale chandra mas ke saman hi vaishakh para. adhimas (malmas) janne ki vidhi kis varsh men adhimas hoga, yah janne ke lie makrand granth men nimn vidhiyan di gai hain - shak shadrsbhupkai (1666) rvirhito nandendu (19) bhirbhajitah sheshe'gnau (3) ch madhuah shive (11) tadpro jyeshthe'mbare (10) chashtake (8) asharho nripte (16) rnabhashch sharkai (5) vishve (13) nabhasyastaya bahu (2) chashnisangyako munivrai prokto'dhimasah kramat. shak sankhya men 1666 ghata kar 19 ka bhag dene par yadi 3 shesh ho, to chaitra, 11 shesh men vaishakh, 10 men jeth, 8 men asharh, 16 men savan, 13, 5 men bhadrapad aur 2 shesh men ashvin mas hota hai. ek vidhi yah bhi batai gai hai ashtashvinandai (928) rviyut ch shakenvendubhibhajitshoshabhadkam. khan(0) rudra (11) ashta (8) vishu (5) vishva (13) yagm (2) chaitradiÿa sapt sadadhimasah.. shak sankhya men 928 ghata kar shesh men 19 ka bhag dene par yadi shesh 9 ho, to chaitra, 0 men vaishakh, 11 men jeth, 8 men asharh, 5 men savan, 13 men bhado, 2 men ashvin, ye 7 mal mas hote hain. ek mat yah bhi hai- shashimunividhuvahnirmi (3171), shrita shakkale, dvigunmnu (1432) vihana e nadan chadan ai (19) vibhaktah. yadi bhavti sheshah sadhruvo'nkon vilokya gan kamunibhiruktan chatra chaitradimasah yada bodshke sheshe samasan ch dvitiyakam. asharh maskan karya brahmasiddhantbhashitam.. shak sankhya men 3171 jorakar fir 1432 ghatakar, 19 ka bhag dene par yadi shesh sankhya adhimas ki ho, to use dekhakar adhik mas ka adesh karna chahie. yahan brahm siddhant ke mat se 16 shesh men asharh ka grahan karna chahie. ek anya vidhi yah bhi hai: meghobhu, 1517 hinshko- dka'chandraraiah, (19) shesho'dhimasa madhutashch yapt. ramo (3) maheshau, (11) vasu, (8) khan, (0) nripod, (16) rtho, (5) vishve, (13) bhujah, (2) katrikpan/nashta.. shak sankhya men 1517 ko ghatakar 19 se bhag dene par 3 shesh men chaitra, 19 men vaishakh, 8 men jeth, 10 men asharh, 16 men savan, 13, 5 men bhado, 2 men ashvin mal mas hote hain. kartik se 5 mas adhik nahin hote hain. yahan sanvat 2061 se age ke adhimas die ja rahe hain: sanvat adhimas sanvat adhimas sanvat adhimas 2061 shravan 2085 kartik 2107 shravan 2064 jyeshth 2086 chaitra 2110 asharh 2067 vaishakh 2088 bhadrapad 2113 vaishakh 2069 bhadrapad 2091 asharh 2115 bhadrapad 2072 asharh 2094 jyeshth 2118 asharh 2075 jyeshth 2096 ashvin 2121 jyeshth 2077 ashvin 2099 bhadrapad 2123 shravan 2080 shravan 2102 jyeshth 2126 shravan 2083 jyeshth 2104 falgun 2129 asharh vaishakh se 5 mas adhik 8 ya 11 ya 19 varsh men hote hain. isi prakar falgun, chaitra, ashvin aur kartik mas bhi adhik mas 141 varsh ya 65 varsh ya 19 varsh men hota hai. adhik mas ki ganna abhisht vikram sanvat men 24 joren tatha 160 ka bhag den. yadi 49, 68, 87, 106, 125 ya 30 shesh bache to chaitra, 76, 95, 114, 133, 152, 11 shesh bachne par vaishakh, 46, 57, 65, 84, 103, 122, 141, 149, 0, 8, 19, 27, 38 shesh rahne par jyeshth, 54, 73, 92, 111, 130, 157, 16, 35 shesh rahne par asharh, 46, 62, 70, 81, 82, 89, 100, 108, 119, 127, 138, 146, 5, 24 shesh bachne par shravan, 51, 13, 32 shesh bachne par bhadrapad, 40, 59, 78, 97, 166, 135, 143, 145, 2, 21 shesh bachne par ashvin ka adhimas janna chahie. in ankon se anyatha shesh bachne par adhik mas nahin hota. udahrn: vartaman varsh vikram sanvat 2061 men shravan adhik mas hai. ukt siddhant par janchen, to 2061 $ 24 = 2085/160 = 13 labdhi tatha 5 shesh bacha. purvoÿar paddhati men 5 shesh rahne par shravan ka hi adhik mas darshaya gaya hai. kshay mas siddhantanusar jis chandra mas men surya ki do sankrantiyan par jaen, use kshay mas kahte hain. kshay mas vale varsh men 2 adhik mason ka ana avashyanbhavi hai. jaise kuch saur mas chandra mason se bare hote hain, vaise hi kuch saur mas chandra mason se chote bhi hote hain. aisi dasha men kabhi-kabhi ek hi chandra mas men surya ki 2 sankrantiyan ho jati hain- pratham chandra mas ke aranbh men aur dvitiya uske ant men. iska karan surya ki gati ka tej ya kam ho jana hota hai. surya ka mandochch siddhant darshata hai ki kartik, margashirsh tatha paush, in 3 mason men hi 2 sankrantiyon ke parne ki sanbhavna banti hai. atah yahi 3 mas kshay mas ho sakte hain, anya koi nahin. pratham kshay mas ya dvitiya kshay mas 19 athva 141 varshaen ke antral par sanbhav hota hai. saur mas man chakra dinandi man mas 30, 54, 51, 3 vaishakh 31, 27, 41, 2 jyeshth agrahayan aur paush mas prayah kshay mas hote hain tatha kabhi-kabhi kartik mas bhi kshay mas ho jata hai. jab agrahayan aur paush kshay mas hote hain, jo jyeshth mas adhi hota hai. kshay mas ke purva bhado se 3 mas adhik hote hain. ashvin-kartik hi adhikatar adhimas hote hain, kintu kabhi-kabhi bhado mas bhi adhik hota hai. jis varsh kartik ka kshay hota hai, us varsh jyeshth mas adhik hota hai. yahan jyeshth shabd se bhado ke grahan karna chahie? sansarp mas evan ahanspati mas jis varsh kshay mas ho, us varsh 2 adhimas avashya hote hain- pratham kshay mas se purva tatha dvitiya kshay masoprant. kshay mas ke purva ane vale adhik mas ko sansarp mas kahte hain. sansarp mas men mundan, vratbandh (janeu), vivah, agnyadhan, yagyaotsav evan rajyabhishekadi varjit hain. anya puja adi karyon ke lie yah svikarya hai. kshay mas ke anantar parne vale adhik mas ko ahanspati mas kahte hain. is mas ukt sabhi karya men varjit hain. kshay mas men kya karna aur kya nahin karna chahie acharya maheshvar ka kahna hai ki kisi chandra mas men yadi surya ki 2 sankrantiyan hoti hain to ek mas ka kshay hota hai. kyonki sankraman yukt mas hi mas hota hai, atah 2 sankrantiyan hone ke karan ek ka lop hota hai. yah do sankramnyukt mas 30 din ka hota hai. ismen shubh yagyadi karya nahin karne chahie. smritiratnavli men kaha gaya hai ki ek hi chandra mas yadi 2 sankratiyon se yukt ho, to donon mason ke shraddh usi men karne chahie, kyonki ek ka kshay ismen varnit hai. jis varsh kshay mas hota hai, us varsh adhik larai, utpat, durbhiksh athva pira ya chatra bhang hota hai. jis paksh men 2 tithiyon ka kshay hota hai, us paksh men larai, dva esh aur paksh nasht hone par raja ka nash tatha mas kshay hone par bhumandal sankatagrast hota hai. adhimas (malmas) men kya karna chahie aur kya nahin karna chahie gangacharya ji ka kahna hai ki agnyadhan, pratishtha, yagya, dan, vratadi, vedavrat, vrishotsarg, chura karm, vrat bandh, dev tirthon men gaman vivah, abhishek yan aur ghar ke kam arthat griharanbhadi karya adhimas men nahin karna chahie. suryoday namak ganrath men kaha hai ki mas men vihit avashyak karya, malmas men varshik shraddh, tirth aur gajachchaya shraddh, adhanangibhut pitron ki kriya karni chahie. yadi kisi ke madhya men mal mas ho, to ek mas ka adhik hi shraddh hoga arthat jis mas men yah hota hai, uski dviravriÿia hoti hai. yadi mal mas men hi kisi ki mrityu ho, usse jo barhvan mas ho, usmen pret kriya puri karni chahie aur abhyudayik tatha krichch ke sath karna chahie. kamya karya ka aranbh vrishotsarg, parvotsav, upakriti, mekhla, chail, managalya, agnyaghan, udyapan karm, vedavrat, mahayan, abhishek varddhamanak, isht karm nahin karna chahie. rishi vashishth ji ka kahna hai ki vapi, kuan, talab adi ki khudai, yagyadi karya mal mas aur sansarp, ahanspati (kshaya) men nahin karna chahie. manu smriti mane kaha gaya hai ki tirth shraddh, dashrsh shraddh, preta shraddh, sapindikaran, chandra-surya grahan snan adhik mas men karna chahie. adhimas (mal mas) fal chaitra mahina adhik hone par kalyan, arogya aur kamnaon ki purti hoti hai. vaishakh mas adhik hone par subhiksh, sundar varsh hota hai lekin jvar aur atisar ki sanbhavna hoti hai. jyeshth mas adhik hone par logon ko kasht hota hai lekin yagya aur adhik danadi hote hain. jab asharh mas 2 hote hain to punya, yash, subhiksh hota hai tatha varsh adhik sukhamay hota hai. jis varsh shravan mas mal mas heata hai us varsh samriddhi aur shudron ki vriddhi hoti hai. bhadrapad mas adhik mas hone par vidroh aur yuddh hota hai. ashvin mas adhik mas hota hai to dusre ke shasan aur choron se janta dukhi, subhiksh, kalyan, arogya, dakshin men durbhiksh, rajaon ka nash aur brahmanon ki vriddhi hoti hai. kartik mas 2 hote hain yah sthiti to shubh hai. janta men khushhali rahti hai, jagh-jagah yagya hote hain aur brahman aon ki vriddhi hoti hai. agrahayan mas mal mas hota hai to subhiksh ata hai aur samast janta svasth rahti hai. falgun mas adhik hone par saÿaa parivartan hota hai tatha subhiksh aur khushhali ati hai. hindugan ganna men 12 chandra mason ka ek chandra varsh hota hai. iske man dinadi 354, 22, 124 hain. yahi muslmanon ka svikrit varsh hai. yah saur varsh se 11 din kam hota hai, atah unka pratyek tyohar prati saur varsh 11 din pahle hi a jata hai, jiska parinam yah hota hai ki lagabhag 32 1/2 mahinon men unke sabhi parva ek mahine purva parne lagte hain aur lagabhag 321/2 varshon men ve sabhi rituon men ghum ate hain. par hindu shastrakaron ne apne chandra parva dinon ko ukt ritu vyatikram se bachane ke lie adhimas ki yukti soch nikali hai. ismen parvon ki ritu vishayak raksha ho jati hai. adhik mas (malmas) ke pariprekshya men hindi v hijri sanvton ka tulnatmak vivechan chaitradi dvadash mas yukt bhartiya hindi varsh chandramas se bana hai. vahin dusri or hijri sanvat men bhi muharram adi barah muslim mas hote hain. chandra darshan se mah aranbh hota hai. hijri sanvat ya muslim varsh men adhik mas nahin hota. muharram ki pahli tarikh se hijri sanvat ka aranbh hota hai tatha chanad dikhne ke dusre din se mah ki pahli tarikh mani jati hai. chandra tithi ki ghat-barh se kabhi mah untis dinon ka to kabhi tis dinon ka hota hai. adhik mas n hone ki vajah se hijri sanvat men pratyek tritiya varsh men fark a jata hai. hijri sanvat men adhik mas n hone ki vajah se rituon men samanjasya sthapit nahin ho pata. ataev muharram kabhi sharad ritu men to kabhi pavas ke samay athva kabhi grishm ritu men hi par jata hai. pratyek taintis muslim mahinon ke uprant muslim varsh saur varsh se ek mah age chala jata hai. muslim varsh ka adhar chandra mas hi hai.
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kal sarp yog visheshank  June 2007

kya hai kal sarp yog ? kal sarp yog ka prabhav, kitne prakar ka hota hai kal sarp yog? kin paristhiyon men shubh hota hai. kal sarp yog ? kal sarp badha nivaran ke upay, 12 prakar ke kal sarp yogon ka karan, nivaran, samadhan

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