व्रत-उपवास की अन्तर्निहित धारणा

vrat-upvas ki antarnihit dharna  

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vrat-upvas ki antarnihit dharna dilip kumar multah vrat ki antarnihit dharna adhyatmik evan vaigyanik hai. yah man ka anushasan hai. yah man ko chanchlta rahit, nirmal, nishkapat, niahsprih evan pavitra karne ka sarvottam sadhan hai. vrat ka adhyatmik arth un achrnon se hai, jo shuddh, saral evan satvik hon tatha jinka vishesh manoyog evan nishthapurvak palan kiya gaya ho. vrat shabd vaidik dharm, darshan evan sanskriti ki ek anuthi den hai. charon vedon, brahman granthon, manusmriti evan sahityik granthon men vrat shabd anek bar aya hai. hamare prachin granthon men vrat pratigya-palan aur durgunon ka parityag kar sadgunon ko dharan karne ke lie drirh nishchay evan drirh sankalp ke arthon men aya hai. vrat shabd ke vividh arth hote hain jaise - agyapalan, dharmik kartavya, devta ki upasna, naitik acharan, vidhiyukt pratigya, angikrit karya ityadi. rigved men vrat shabd ka arth hai - ishvariya agya. atharvaved men is shabd ka arth hai dharmik kritya angikar karne ka nishchay - ‘samano mantrah samitiah samani samanan vratan sah chittamesham.’ prayashchit karte samay katipay kathor niyamon ka palan karna parta hai jise manusmriti men vrat kaha gaya hai. mahabharat men vrat shabd ka arth dharmik kritya, pratigya adi hai. puranadi men iska arth - vishisht tithi men, vishisht var men, vishisht mas men vishisht devta ki puja karke apna ichchit hetu sadhya karne ke lie kuch ann sevan evan itar acharan ke nirbandh palan se hai. amrkosh men to vrat aur niyam prayah samanarthi shabd hain. mitakshara men iska arth hai kuch kriya karne ka aur kuch kriya karne ka nishchay. nishkarshatah satkarm vrat hai. abhisht karm karne ka sankalp vrat hai. dharmacharan vrat hai. shastravihit niyamon ka palan karna vrat hai. islie kaha gaya hai -‘priyate iti vratm’ arthat jiska varan, grahan, anupalan, acharan kiya jae vahi vrat hai. arya sanskriti men, shriram ki paranpra men vrat ka sanbandh acharan se hai. burai ko chorne aur sachchai evan bhalai ko drirhtapurvak apnane ka nam vrat hai. bhishm ne ajivan brahmachari rahne ka vrat liya tha. yahan vrat ka arth sankalp hai. shriram ka jivan drirhavrat ka paryay hai- ‘satyasangh drirhavrat raghurai’. gosvami tulsidas ji bharat ji ke vrat-niyam ka gungan karte hue kahte hain - pranvau pratham bharat ke charna. jasu nem vrat jai n barna.. shri hanuman ji ke seva vrat se sabhi parichit hain. rashtriya andolan ke kal men mahatma gandhi ne ‘satya evan ahinsa’ ka vrat liya tha. amar shahid chandrashekhar ajad ne angrejon ke hathon n marne ka vrat liya tha. vrat men upvas ka vidhan hai. keval anna-jal ke parityag se hi upvas ki purti nahin hoti. upvas ka shabdik arth hai - ”up samipe vasah.“ samip men rahna arthat apne ishtadev ke pas rahna. manav ne jo lakshya dharan kiya hai, jo vrat dharan kiya hai, uske samip uska vas hona. taittiriyopnishad men vrat ke vishay men kaha gaya hai - ‘annan n nindyat. tad vratam. annan bahu kurvit. tad vratam.’ arthat ann ki ninda mat karo, vah ek vrat hai. ann ko barhana ek vrat hai. medikal sains kahta hai madhumeh ke rogi, garbhavati mahila, gaistrik ke rogi, peptik alsar ke rogi adi upvas n karen, arthat ann n tyagen, varna labh ki jagah hani hogi. prayah dekha jata hai ki vrat ke nam par ann ka tyag hota hai. kai jagah kshetriya paranpra ke anusar karmakand hota hai, svarthaparak vrat ka chunav hota hai. vrat liya nahin jata, kiya jata hai. yahi karan hai ki vrat ke din bhi tathakthit vrati ishrya, dosh, krodh, moh, svarth, vaimanasyata adi ko chor nahin pata hai. vrat ek aupcharikta ban kar rah gaya hai. vrat nahin karenge to log kya kahenge? ‘vratanan satyamuttamam’-vraton men satya vrat hi sabse uttam hai. taittiriyopnishad men dikshant updesh ke sanatan adarsh sutra rup men die gae hain - ‘satyan vad.’ dharman char.’ ishvar satya svarup hai aur satya ishvar ka bhav vigrah hai. atah man, vani aur karm men satya ko pratishthit karna, vichar aur acharan men satya ko dharan karna sarvopri vrat hai. shrimdbhagavat men ek prasang aya hai. kans ke karagar men band devki ke garbh men jab bhagvan ne pravesh kiya to bhagvan shankar aur brahma ji us karagar men ae. unke sath samast devta aur rishigan bhi the. un sabhi ne bhagvan shrihri ki is prakar stuti ki- satyavratan satyapran trisatyan, satyasya yoni nihitan ch satye. satyasch satyamritasatyanetran satyatmakan tvan sharnan prapannaah.. arthat prabho! ap satya sankalp hain. satya hi apki prapti ka shreshth sadhan hai. srishti ke purva, pralay ke pashchat aur sansar ki sthiti ke samay in tinon avasthaon men ap satya hain. prithvi, jal, tej, vayu aur akash in panch satyon ke ap hi karan hain aur unmen ap antaryami rup se virajman bhi hain. bhagvn! ap to bas satya svarup hi hain. ham sab apke sharnagat hain. bhagvan ke isi satya svarup ko janmanas men pratishthit karne ke uddeshya se shri satyanarayan vrat katha ka ullekh puranon men hua hai. yah katha pujaparak hai, kintu katha ke madhyam se sandesh diya gaya hai ki satya hi narayan ka rup hai aur satya vrat ka palan karne se ham narayan ko prapt kar sakte hain. vrat pap se bachata hai. am dharna hai ki jivan men anachar, bhrashtachar evan atyachar karte jao aur sath-sath vrat bhi karte jao to pap kat jaenge. aise log ishvar ke atal niyam karmafal siddhant ko, ved, shastra upnishad evan gita ko chunauti dete hain. vrat karne se kiya hua pap katta ya mitta nahin hai. karmon ka bhog aj nahin to kal bhogna hi hoga. drirh pratigya se jab koi burai chor deta hai to dushkarm karne ki pravritti ka sudhar hota hai. tabhi uddhar hai. dae. sarvapalli radhakrishnan ne isi prasang men likha hai- shmamatal enpadaj ine n chanej ndak maamatal epadadamat ine n nijanatamansh pratyek mahatma sajjan ka ek atit aur pratyek papi ka ek bhavishya hai. karn? jiv karm karne ke lie svatantra hai. tabhi to ek vicharak ne bhartiya astik darshan par ek mahatvapurn vakya likha hai - shjim kvavat v iispee pe nsunle vachamadansh yadi varsh men do char din ann tyagakar, chota-mota karmakand kar vrat karne se pap aur dosh kat jate to desh men jel, kachhri, kort, nyayadhish adi ki vyavastha kyon hoti. hatyare ko kaha jata, bas tum ek vrat kar lo dosh kat jaega. man marakar ek din to pashu pakshi bhi bhukhe rah sakte hanai. lekin, ise ham vrat nahin kah sakte. vrat ek sankalp hai durachar n karne ka. vrat ishvariya niyamon ka palan hai. vrat ichchashakti hai dushkarm se khud ko bachane ka. chandogyopnishad men kaha gaya hai - ‘mahamnaah syat tadavratam’ arthat bare man vale bano, yah vrat hai. gita men kaha gaya hai- natyashranatastu yogo'sti n chaikantamanashnatah. yog n to bahut khane vale ka, n bilkul n khane vale ka siddh hota hai. arthat ann tyagna hi vrat ka paryay nahin hai. gita men hi kaha gaya hai - ‘annaövanti bhutani parjanyadannasambhavah’ arthat sabhi prani ann se utpann hote hain. taittiriyopnishad men bhi kaha gaya hai- ‘annaddhyev khalvimani bhutani jayante annen jatani jivanti.’ arthat sab prani ann se hi utpann hote hain aur utpann hokar ann se hi jite hain. yah nirvivad satya hai ki vrat ka arth hai atmashodhan ke nimitt kie gae vidhisammat upayon ko drirhtapurvak apnaye rahna. vraton ka prayojan durgunon, kashay-kalmarshon ka nishkasan evan sanskaron ka udattikaran hai. vrat ka arth hai satkarm ki sankalpashakti arthat uchch stariya niyamon ka pratigyapurvak palan. vrat rupi sankalp ke anek adarsh dharm granthon men bhare pare hain. vrat ke adhikari kaun ho sakte hain, iska nirupan karte hue vedavyasji skandapuran men likhte hain- nijavarnashramacharnirtah shuddhamansah. alubdhah satyavadi ch sarvabhuthite ratah.. vrateshvadhikrito rajannanyatha viflah shramah. shraddhavanpapbhirushch madadambhavivarjitah.. purvan nishchayamashritya yathavatkarmakarkah. avednindako dhimandhikari vratadishu.. arthat jo varnashram dharm ka palan karta ho, jiska man shuddh ho, jo lobhi n ho, satyavadi ho, sab praniyon ke kalyan men sanlagn rahta ho, jis vrat ka palan karna chahta ho uske prati shraddhavan ho, pap se darta ho, ghamand evan danbh se rahit ho aur jo vrat karne ka usne purva men nishchay kiya ho, uske niyamadi ka yathavat palan karne vala ho, vedon ki ninda karne vala n ho vahi buddhiman vyakti vrat karne ka adhikari hai. arsh paranpra ke ye jo panch yam hain, yah sarvabhaumik vrat hai. jain paranpra ke log inhen vrat nahin apitu mahavrat kahte hain. isi prakar panch niyamon ka yogadarshan men vidhan kiya gaya hai. yamon ko ham sarvajnik anushasan kahenge aur shaurya, santosh, tap, svadhyay evan pranidhan ko vyaktigat jivan ka anushasan kaha jaega. yah avashyak bhi hai. iska vikalp nahin hai. ismen se ek ka bhi ullanghan hone se sansar men klesh, dvesh, pap, tap evan patan ki barh ko koi nahin rok sakta hai jo ki aj sarvatra dekhne ko mil rahi hai. islie rigved men kaha gaya hai- devanan pari bhushsi vratam. prabho! ap devon ko devon ki vrittivale guniyon ko vraton se alankrit karne vale hain. rigved men manav ko prabal prerna dete hue kaha gaya hai- ‘ragyao nu to varunasya vratani’ arthat jaise prabhu ke sab karya lokhitkari evan kalyankari hain, he manushya! tere vrat, tere satkarm bhi sarvahitkari hon. shrigurugranthsahib men bhi ‘nirdisht vrat’ pad uparyukt sabhi adarshon ka dyotak hai. vrat ki vyakhya ke prasang men shri gurugranth sahib men satya, ahankar tyag, shil, santosh adi adhyatmik sanpda ko uttam vrat ki sangya di gai hai- sachu vartu santokhu tirthu gianu dhianu isnanu. jap tapu sanjmu haumai mari. khima gahi bratu sil santokham. shri gurugranth sahib men manav jivan ki us vidanbna ko bhi dikhaya gaya hai, jiske adhin hokar manushya kabhi lok dikhave athva pakhand ke lie aur kabhi svarthavash, lobhavash vrat, niyam evan sanyam adi jivan men dharan karta hai aur vratanushthan ke sahi uddeshya se vichlit ho jata hai. vastav men vrat ka arth bhukhe rahna nahin apitu, ahar par sanyam hai. sanyam keval jihva par hi nahin, anya indriyon par bhi avashyak hai. multah vrat ki antnirhit dharna adhyatmik evan vaigyanik hai. yah man ka anushasan hai. yah man ko chanchlta rahit, nirmal, nishkapat, niahsprih evan pavitra karne ka sarvottam sadhan hai. vrat ka adhyatmik arth un achrnon se hai, jo shuddh, saral evan satvik ho tatha jinka vishesh manoyog evan nishthapurvak palan kiya gaya ho. aj vrat men shuddhacharan ko tyag kar tan ki shuddhata par jor diya jata hai. arba bhojan ya usna bhojan, vrat ke ek din pahle se upvas ya do din bad tak upvas, adi men asal bhav ulajh kar rah gaya hai. bat apne hit ki ho athva dusre ke hit ki, jo shuddh ho uska nishthapurvak palan karna hi vrat kahlata hai. srishti ka sanchalan niyampurvak chal raha hai. surya apne nirdharit niyam ke anusar chalte rahte hain. chandrama ki kalaon ka ghatna barhna sadaiv kram se hota rahta hai. sare ke sare grah nakshatra apne nirdharit path par hi chalte rahte hain. isi se sari duniya thik se chal rahi hai. agni, vayu, samudra, prithvi sabhi apne-apne vrat ke palan men tatpar hain. manav samaj hi aj manviya vrat bhulakar amanviya kritya men lag gaya hai. ahinsa manav samaj ka sahaj vrat hai. ahinsa ek aisa vrat hai jiske palan se jivmatra men vair bhav hi nirmul ho jata hai. shruti kahta hai- ‘ma hinsyat sarvani bhutani’ arthat kisi bhi prani ki hinsa mat karo. safal jivan nirvah men ‘vaksanyam vrat’ ka mahatvapurn sthan hai. shabd ko vidha vishesh men dhvanit karne ki kshamata parmatma ne prani jagat men matra manav ko hi di hai. vaksanyam vrat samast siddhiyon ka data hai. vaksanyam se samaj men maitri bhav ka vikas hone ke sath lok kalyan ki bhavna bhi nirantar bani rahti hai. ved shastron men rishiyon, manishiyon, shri ram v krishn ne vaksanyam vratacharan nimitt jo hridayagrahi vidhi-nishedhatmak shiksha di hai. uska sankshep men anushilan is prakar hai- vaksanyam vrat men satya, priya, madhur, hit, mit aur mangalyavani ka prayogabhyas aur ninda, viktha, parihas, sansarik vishay charcha, ashlil evan anargal pralap ka parityag hota hai. jivanapath ko saras aur pavitra banane ke lie shauchachar evan sadachar vrat ko sudrirh sopan, adharbhut utkarshakarak bataya gaya hai. shauch ka arth hai shuddhata. shuddh aur pavitra karya-kalap shauchachar kahlata hai. svarup bhed ke anusar shuddhata ya pavitrata ke tin bhed hain- kayik arthat sharir ki shuddhata, vachik arthat vani ki shuddhata aur mansik arthat man ki shuddhata. aj jo vrat upvas log rakhte hain ya karte hain, usmen kayik shuddhata arthat sharir ki shuddhata ya samagri shuddhata par jor diya jata hai. vachik aur mansik shuddhata ka sarvatra lop ho chuka hai. bhartiya manishiyon ne atmasat karte hue iski upadeyta ko muktakanth se vyakt kiya hai aur kaha hai shauchachar ke bagair samast kriya nishfal hai- shauche yatnah sada karyah shauchmulo yato dvijah. shauchacharvihinasya samasta nishfala kriyaah. man, vani aur karm ki pavitrata, shuddhata ko shuchita kaha jata hai. man men vikaron ka n ana man ki nirmalata tatha pavitrata hai. vani se madhur, kalyankarak, priya satyasanbhashan vani ki pavitrata hai. sharir shuddh ho aur man ashuddh ho to sab vyarth hai. man ke shuddh hone par hi kriya ki shuddhi hoti hai. kriya shuddhi ko hi shauchachar ka saratatva mana jata hai. samanyatah vyakti ke kriyaklap aur vyavhar ko achar kahte hain. satvik, pavitra acharan ko sadachar kaha jata hai. is prakar shauchachar tatha sadacharavrat ka drirhtapurvak palan karnevala vrati shashvat kalyan prapti ka pathik ban jata hai. nishkarshatah vratacharan se manushya ko unnat jivan ki yogyata prapt hoti hai. mukhya rup se hamare samaj men tin prakar ke vrat prachlit hain - 1. nitya 2. naimittik aur 3. kamya. nitya ve vrat hain jo bhaktipurvak bhagvan ki prasannata ke lie nirantar kartavya bhav se kie jate hain. kisi nimitt se jo vrat kie jate hain ve naimittik vrat kahlate hain aur kisi vishesh kamna ko lekar jo vrat kie jate hain ve kamya vrat kahe jate hain. sabhi prakar ke vraton men manas vrat ahinsa, satya, astey tatha brahmacharya ka palan avashyak hai. ahinsa satyamasteyan brahmacharya makalmasham. etani mansanyahuvrratani vrat dharini.. (varah puran)
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vrat katha visheshank  November 2008

somvar se shanivar tak kiye jane vale vrat kathaen evan unka mahatva, vrat evan katha karne ki pujan vidhi evan disha nirdesh, ahoi ashtami, karva chauth, holi adi jaise varsh bhar men hone vale sabhi vishesh vrat kathaen aur unka mahatva, vrat evan kathaon ke karne se milne vale labh

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