भारतीय संस्कृति में संस्कार

bhartiya sanskriti men sanskar  

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sanskriti shabd jitna prachlit hai aur jitna hamare samajik vyavhar men ghula mila hai, iska arth janna utna hi kathin hai. jo vastu hamari ankhon ke jitna adhik nikat hoti hai, use dekh pana kathin hota hi hai. kuch vidvan susanskaron ke samuh ko sanskriti kahte hain to kuch iska sanbandh vesh-bhusha, bhasha, kala adi se mante hain. sanskriti shabd ki vyutpatti ‘kri’ (karna) dhatu men ‘sam’ upasarg aur ‘ktin’ pratyay jorakar ‘sut’ ke agam se svikar ki jati hai, atah iska arth hai- parishkaran, parimarjan athva alankrit karna. iska ek arth srijn-kriya bhi mana jata hai. ashtadhyayi men sanskriti ka arth ‘mandana’ mana gaya hai. hindi shabd sagar men sanskriti ka ek arth ‘sabhyata’ bhi diya gaya hai. vahan iske anya arth shuddhi, safai, sanskar, sudhar, mansik vikas, sajavat adi milte hain. is prakar sanskaron se hi sanskriti ka nirman hota hai kyonki sanskar vaiyaktik hokar samajikaran men parivartit ho jate hain. kalantar men ye sabhi sanskar sanbandhit kshetra ki sanskriti men parivartit ho jate hain. bhartiya sanskriti men varnashram dharm ki mahatta mani jati rahi hai. koi bhi shishu janm se vishisht gunon se yukt ya mahan nahin hota varan sanskar use mahan bana dete hain. ‘sanskarotiti sanskar’ arthat jo svachch karte hain, pavitra karte hain, ve sanskar kahlate hain. sanskarhin purush shudravat mana jata hai. ”janmana jayte shudrah sanskarad dvij uchyate“ parantu brahman to janm se hi brahman hota hai. sanskaron se usmen dvijatva ata hai. ”janmana brahmanon gyaeyah sanskaraidrvij uchyate. vidyabhyasi bhaved viprah shrotriya stribhirev hi..“(padam puran) sanskar shabd ka prayog kai arthon men hota hai. ‘medni’ kosh men iska arth hai pratiyatn, anubhav aur manas karm. nyay darshan men yah ek gun vishesh hai- sharir evan vastuon ki shuddhi ke lie unke vikas ke sath samy-samay par jo karm kie jate hain, unhen sanskar kahte hain. yah vishesh prakar ka adrishya (paroksha) fal utpann karne vala karm hota hai. (hindu dharm kosh) hindu dharm shastra ke anusar pratyek vyakti ko in sanskaron ke dvara susanskrit banaya jata hai. balak ka janm grihasth ashram ke antargat hota hai. atah manav sanskriti tatha samaj ke vistar ke lie grihasth dharm ka susanchalan atyant avashyak hai. iske lie manav samaj men parivar ka sangathan hua. parivar ki sunishchit yojna ke lie vyaktiyon ko samajik ek sutrata men abaddh karne ke lie sanskar avashyak kritya ban gaye aur iske bina koi bhi vyakti samaj men samman pane ka adhikari nahin raha. manu smriti men ek sthan par kaha gaya hai- ‘janmana jayte shudrah sanskar dvij uchyate’ arthat janm ke samay pratyek balak shudra hota hai. sanskar ke dvara use dvij pad ki prapti hoti hai. yahan par dvij shabd ka arth hai jisne do bar janm liya hai. balak ek bar janm lekar sansar men padarpan karta hai aur dusri bar sanskar yukt hokar samaj ke anurup banta hai. vedon aur unse sanbandhit sahitya men yatra-tatra sanskaron ka ullekh milta hai parantu unmen sutrabaddhata ka abhav milta hai. vedon men sanskaron ka varnan suvicharit se kahin bhi prapt nahin hota. vaidik sahitya ke antim charan men sanskaron ko samajik manyata prapt hone lagi thi, parantu ye ek vyavasthit rup men upalabdh nahin the. sarvapratham grihyasutron men sanskar ka vyavasthit ullekh kiya gaya. hindu dharmashastra men iske mahatva ko nirdharit karke manav jivan men iski upyogita niyat ki gai. is vishay par sabhi shastrakar sahamat hain ki sanskar ke dvara balak shuddh hokar jivan ko sanchalit karne yogya banta hai. sanskar ka arth hai-bahya tatha antrik drishti se saman rup se viksit karne vale ve kritya jo samaj ko sanchalit karne ki shakti pradan karte hain. samaj shastri ‘mekaivr’ sanskar shabd ko paribhashit karte hue kahte hain ”sanskar ka arth aupcharik v pratishthit prakriti ki aisi sthapit karyavahi hai jiska uddeshya kisi sandarbh ya avasar ki mahatta ko ankit karna hota hai. sanskar manav samuh ko drirh ekta ke sutra men bandhne ka karya karte hain tatha manviya vicharon evan krityon ke lie nirdisht marg nirdharit karte hain.“ samajik jivan ki ek sutrata tatha samuhik utkarsh ke lie sanskar vyakti ko nishchit kartavyon se bandh dete hain. sanskaron ke madhyam se hamen kisi bhi samaj ki unnati tatha avnti ka bodh hota hai. sanskaron ki sankhya ke vishay men bhartiya vidvan ek mat nahin hain. grihyasutra men inki sankhya 40 mani gai hai, iske atirikt gautam rishi ne apne dharmasutra men inki sankhya 48 mani hai. maharshi dayanand ne sanskar vidhi men sanskaron ki sankhya 15 tatha antyeshti karm ko sanskar n kah kar antyeshti karm kaha hai. parantu prastut sandarbh men sankhya vistar ki vivechna avashyak nahin, atah un sanskaron ka vivechan hi avashyak hai jo jivan men vishesh upyogi hanai. vartaman yug men sharir ke mukhya solah nimnalikhit sanskar prachlit hain: 1. garbhadhan, 2. punsavan 3. simantonnayan, 4. jatakarm 5. namakaran, 6. nishkraman, 7. annaprashan, 8. churakaran, 9. karnavedh, 10. vidyaranbh, 11. upanayan, 12. vedaranbh, 13. keshant, 14. samavartan, 15. vivah, 16. antyeshti 1. garbhadhan sanskar: garbhadhan sanskar pratyek garbh ke liye karna jaruri hai. putra mata-pita ke rajo virya se utpann hota hai. jis prakar ke bhav us samay mata-pita ke honge vaise hi sanskar santti grahan karegi. yah kriya sarvatha adhyatmik hai pashvik nahin. santan utpann karna, manushya ka vaiyaktik aur samajik kartavya hai. sath hi iska sanbandh, purusharth athva mukti se bhi hai. atah ise sanympurvak sarvatha adhyatmik vatavaran men sanpann karna uchit hai. 2. punsavan sanskar: ‘puman prasuyate yen karmana tattpansvnmiritam’ yah sanskar bhavi santan shaktishali ho is prayojan se garbh ke sanskar rup men kiya jana chahie. prayah aisi dharna hai ki santan putra ho is ichcha se vah sanskar kiya jata hai. paraskar grihyasutra ke vachnanusar garbh sthiti men dusre ya tisre mahine ke jis din, pushya, punarvasu, mrigshira, hast, mul aur shravan adi pulling nam vala koi nakshatra ho, us din garbhini ko upvas ke bad snan kara kar naye do shuddh vastra pahnakar purvabhimukh baitha kar yah sanskar kiya jata hai. 3. simantonnayan sanskar: ‘simant unniyante yasmin tat simantonnayanamiti’ yah sanskar garbhini stri ke man ko santusht aur nirog rakhne tatha garbh sthiti ko sthayi evan uttarottar shreshth bante jane ki ichcha se kiya jata hai. simantonnayan shabd ka arth hai striyon ke sir ki mang . yahan pati apne hath se patni ke bal sanvar kar mang men sindur dan karta hai. garbhavati patni ko visheshtah prasann rakhne ke lie is sanskar ka samay garbh ka chaitha ya athvan mahina niyat hai. in mahinon men jab chandrama punarvasu, pushya adi pulling nakshatron se yukt ho tab yah sanskar kiya jana chahie. charak ke kathnanusar ‘sa yat yat ichchet tat asyai dadyat anyatra garbhapat karebhyah bhavebhyah’ arthat garbhavati stri garbh nasht karne vali vastuon ko chorakar jo bhi vah mange use dena chahie. 4. jatakarm sanskar: utpann hue balak ke jo karm kiye jate hain unhen ‘jat karma’ kaha jata hai. in karmon men bachche ka snan, mukh adi ki safai, madhu, ghi chatana, stanapan adi sutika grih men bachche ke karne hote hain. atah inhen sanskar mana gaya hai. kintu ajakal ke yug ki paristhitivash aspatalon men shishu janm hone se ye sabhi kriyaen sutika grih men sanbhav nahin hain aise men to prasav ka 9van mahina lagne par kisi shubh din men is sanskar ko kiya jana chahiye jisse karm lop n ho aur paranpra ki raksha bhi ho jaye. 5. namakaran sanskar: paraskar grihya sutra ke pramananusar ‘harihar bhashya’ ne arth kiya hai ki - prasav dinbharabhya dashamyan tithausutikan sutika grihad utthapya, pita apatyasya namdheyan karoti’ arthat brahman adi varnon men jiske yahan jitne din ka sutak mana gaya hai, utne hi din sutika ko uthakar agle din namakaran sanskar kiya jata hai. sadharan pratha 11ven din namakaran sanskar karne ki chali a rahi hai. ashtadhyayi ke bhashyakar apne granth ke shabdanushasan prakaran men likhte hain. ‘dashabhyamuttar kalan putrasya jatasya nam vidadhyat’ arthat dasven din ke pashchat putra ka nam rakhen. charak ne spasht kiya hai- dasvin ratri bitne ke bad gyarhven ya niyat din, yadi namakaran n ho sake, to fir kisi bhi shubh din namakaran sanskar kar lena chahie. 6. nishkraman sanskar: navjat shishu ko pahle pahal ghar se bahar bhraman ke liye le jate samay yah sanskar kiya jata hai. sutika grih se shishu ko bahar nikalne ke liye 12ven din se chaturth mas tak, bhinna-bhinn samay ka dharm granthon men ullekh hai. jatak ko tritiya mas men surya tatha chaturth mas men chandra darshan karana chahie. ‘tattah tritiyemase katrtavyan surya darshanam. chaturthe mase katrtavyan shishoshchandrasya darshanam’ surya chandra ke darshan se abhipray jyoti ke samne nikalne men savdhani rakhne ki or dhyan rakhna, is sanskar ka uddeshya hai. yadi deshantar men shishu ko le jane ki shighrata ho to 12ven din hi yah sanskar kar lena uchit hai. 7. annaprashan sanskar: navjat shishu ko man ke dudh ke atirikt thos bhojan khilane ka nam hi annaprashan sanskar hai. paraskar grihyasutra ke anusar - ‘annaprashn’ sanskar chathe mahine karna chahiye. shishu ke dant niklni aranbh hone ka samanyatah yahi samay hai. isi samay dudh ke sath bhojan dena aranbh karna chahie. 8. churakarm sanskar: keshon ko kat kar devta ko arpan karna churakarm (churakrn) sanskar kahlata hai. kesh, nakh romadichchedan pap nivritti mana hai. ‘churakarm dvijatinan sarveshamev janmatah. prathme'bde tritiye va katrtavyan shruti chodnat’. churakarm athva mundan sanskar jatak ke ek varsh ka hone par ya uske janm ke tisre varsh men karna chahie. yadi kulachar aisa ho to panchven varsh men upanayan ke sath bhi ise kiya ja sakta hai. jatak ki mata garbhini ho to panchven varsh se purva churakarm n kiya jae. panchven varsh ke bad to garbhini avastha men bhi kar lena chahie, upanayan ke sath bhi garbhini hone ka dosh nahin. ‘vivah vrat churasu mata yadi rajasvala. tasyaah shuddhah par karya manglan manurabravit’.. vivah, upanayan aur churakarm ke samay mata rajasvala ho to uske shuddh hone par ye karm kiye jane chahiye. 9. karnavedh sanskar: karnavedho varshe tritiye panchme ka pushyendu chitra hari revtishu purvanhe. chura karm se pahle ya piche, tisre athva panchven varsh men pushya, mrigshira, chitra, shravan aur revti adi nakshatron men se kisi nakshatra men pratah suryoday ke pashchat madhyahn se purva is sanskar ke karne ka samay hai. ‘raksha bhushnanimittan balasya karnau vidhyete.’ balak ki raksha tatha bhushan pahnana is sanskar ka prayojan hai. sushrut ke vachnanusar kan ko bindhne se antra-vriddhi adi rogon se raksha hoti hai. grah vyadhi ki nivritti, is sanskar ka dusra prayojan bhi mana gaya hai. karnavedh kriya ke samay balak ke samne usko prasann rakhne ke liye, mithai, khilaune adi bhi rakhe jane chahiye. yah sanskar janm ke dasven din se lekar panch varsh tak kabhi bhi shubh muhurt men kiya ja sakta hai. mantrochcharan purvak svarn chandi ki shlaka se balak ka pahle dayan fir bayan tatha kanya ka pahle bayan fir dayan kan vedh karna chahie. 10. vidyaranbh sanskar: is sanskar ke bare men vidvanon ke bhinna-bhinn mat hain. vidya aranbh ke samay guru ke samip jatak ko le jana hi is sanskar ke antargat ata hai. atah upanayan sanskar ke samay bhi yah sanskar kiya ja sakta hai. 11. upanayan sanskar: ‘acharyadinan bato naynan prayan upanayanam’ acharya ke pas batuk ko le jana hi ‘upnyn’ kahlata hai, ‘up-samipe nayan, upanayanam.’ paraskar ke mat se tatha anya acharyon ke mat se bhi jis din janm hua ho ya jis din garbh raha ho usse athven varsh men brahman, gyarhven varsh men kshatriya aur barhven varsh men vaishya ka ’upnyn’ hona chahiye. manu ji ke pramananusar, brahman ka yagyaopvit solhven varsh tak, kshatriya ka bais aur vaishya ka 24 varsh ki ayu tak ho jana chahiye. brahman ka upanayan vasant men, kshatriya ka grishm men, vaishya ka sharad ritu men tatha rathkar ka upanayan sanskar varsha ritu men karna chahiye. manushya ko hamesha yagyasutra dharan kiye hue tatha shikha bandhe rahna chahiye. shikha aur yagyaopvit shunya manushya jo kuch bhi dharmik kritya karta hai vah nishfal hi hai, aisa katyayan ka mat hai. 12. vedaranbh sanskar: yah sanskar ‘upnyn’ ke bad usi ka ek ang mana gaya hai. upanayan ke bad hi ved ke adhyayan tatha gayatri jap evan anya dev pitri sanbandhi dharmik satkarm karne ka adhikari hota hai. kisi bhi shubh din apni shakha ke adhyayan ke sath vedadhyayan ka aranbh kiya jata hai. vashishth vachnanusar jis kul men jis jis ved shakha ke mantron dvara yagyaopvit sanskar adi hote rahte hain us kul men pahle us ved ka adhyayan aranbh karna chahiye. us ved ki samapti par dusre ved ka aranbh karna chahiye. 13. keshant karma: vedaranbh sanskar ke uprant vedadhyayan ki samapti par ‘samavartana’ sanskar hota hai. parantu manu ji adi shastrakaron ne 16ven varsh men ‘keshant’ sanskar ki bhi ganna ki hai. ‘keshantah shodshe varshe, brahmanasya vidhiyate. rajanya bandhodrvavishe, vaishyasya dvayadhike tatah.’ (manusmriti a. 2) isse pratit hai ki ‘churakrn’ aur ‘keshanta’ sanskar ka prayojan ek saman hai. atah anek acharyon ne ‘keshanta’ ko prithak sanskar nahin mana. 16 varsh ki ayu bitne par 16ven varsh men jab much-darhi v bagal ke balon ka chedan karvana aranbh kare, tab prathamachchedan kal men yah vidhi ki jati hai. paraskar grihyasutra ke anusar ‘churakarma’ aur ‘keshanta’ ki vidhiyan bhi ek saman hain. 14. samavartan sanskar: vedadhyayan ki samapti par yah sanskar kiya jata hai jo grih ki or lautne ka dyotak hai, yah pratyavartan sanskar bhi kaha jata hai. ek ved ke adhyayan ki samapti ho, do ki ho, tin ki ho, athva 48 varsh paryant, charon vedon ke adhyayan ki samapti ho. kintu vartaman kal men gurukulon aur ved ke adhyayan ki pratha lupt ho jane ke karan ‘upnyn’, ‘vedaranbh’ aur ‘samavartana’ sanskar prayah ek sath hi sanpann kar liye jate hain. acharya ki anumti milne par hi yah sanskar hota hai kyonki ‘agya gurunamvicharniya’ guru agya shirodharya hoti hai. 15. vivah sanskar: vivah sabse adhik mahatvapurn sanskaron men se ek mana jata hai aur yah apne apmen yagya ke rup men dekha jata hai jiske bina koi bhi jatak purusharth chatushtay arthat dharm (sahi vyavhar), arth (arthik unnati), kam (bhogya padartha) aur moksh (papon se antim mukti tatha avagaman se nivritti) prapt nahin kar sakta hai. vivah hi ek aisa sanskar hai jiske dvara jatak santan ko janm dekar aur unka paln-poshan karke pitri rin se mukt ho sakta hai. vivah matra kam-vasna ki purti ke lie avashyak nahin mana jata hai apitu santti ki vriddhi, manvta ke svaniyantran evan svatyag jaise uchch mulyon ko age barhane, vyaktitva ke sahi paripakva hone aur vyaktigat jivan men bhrasht acharan ko rokne ke lie adhik mahatvapurn mana jata hai. vivah ki pavitrata tatha shreshthata smritiyon men is prakar kahi gai hai. ‘brahmaddvahasambhutah pitrinan tarkah sutah. vivahasya falan tvetat vyakhyatah paramarshibhiah..’ arthat keval brahm adi pavitra vivah sanbandhon se utpann putra hi pitrignon ki atma ko mukti pradan kara sakta hai. vivah ke bad hi santan prapti hoti hai aur santan prapti par hi sadgati prapt hoti hai. dusre shabdon men vivah sanskar ke bad hi jatak santanotpatti ka adhikari hai. 16. antyeshti sanskar: yah antim sanskar hai. is sanskar ke uprant koi bhi sanskar nahin bachta. is sanskar ke antargat mrityu uprant manav deh ko agni ke havale kar diya jata hai. vibhinn shastrakaron ne antyeshti karm ki alg-alag vidhi batlai hai. mrityu ke bad antyeshti sanskar ke dvara vyakti ke parlok ka niyaman tatha punarjanm ki vyavastha ki gayi. is prakar sanskar manav jivan ko suvyavastha dene ke lie banae gae. inke dvara vyakti apni sanskriti ki vishishtataon ko vahan karne yogya banta hai tatha samaj ko susanchalit karne men samarth hota hai.
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  October 2012

Apne vichar vyakt karein

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