आपके विचार

apke vichar  

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apke vichar pra shna: aynansh se kya abhipray hai? jyotish men nirayan paddhati ka prayog karna chahie ya sayan ka evan kyon? savistar likhen. kisi niyat kal men krantivriÿasth revatyant bindu (sthir sanpat) se vastavik vasant sanpat (chal sanpat) bindu tak ki anshatmak duri us niyat kal ka aynansh kahlati hai. lagabhag 72 varshon men aynansh men ek ansh ki vriddhi ho sakti hai. sthul man se aynansh ki varshik gati 50 vikla hai, kintu ayan bindu ki vastavik varshik gati bhi prativarsh nyun matra men nirantar barh rahi hai. ek shatabdi men yah 0.0227 vikla barhti hai. sukshm gannaen batati hain ki 1 janvri 1996 ko ayan bindu ki gati 50.2777 vikla prativarsh tatha 1998 ko 50.28 vikla thi. ayan bindu ki spasht gati men rahu ki sthiti ke anusar bhi kuch vikla ki vriddhi ya kami sanbhav hai. sthul aur spasht gati ki bhanti madhyam aur spasht aynansh men dha¬unan ke karan $-18.40 vikla tak ka antar bane rahne ki gunjaish rahti hai. janvri 1996 ko ayan bindu ki gati 50.2777 vikla prativarsh tatha 1998 ko 50.28 vikla thi. ayan bindu ki spasht gati men rahu ki sthiti ke anusar bhi kuch vikla ki vriddhi ya kami sanbhav hai. sthul aur spasht gati ki bhanti madhyam aur spasht aynansh men dha¬unan ke karan $-18.40 vikla tak ka antar bane rahne ki gunjaish rahti hai. yadyapi shunya aynansh varsh ka sarvashuddh nirdharan sanbhav nahin kyonki bhinna-bhinn karan evan siddhant granthon ke adhar par ismen antar ata hai, kintu yadi 1 janvri 2003 ko vastavik aynansh 23 ansh 53 kala 48 vikla mana jae to 50 vikla prativarsh ki sthul gati darshati hai ki aj se lagabhag 1721 varsh 8 mah purva arthat lagabhag i. 285 shunya aynansh varsh tha (yadyapi yah pramanik nahin). bharat sarkar ne sva. nirmal chand lahiri ki anushansa par ise hi adhar mante hue 21 march 1956 ko aynansh 23 ansh 15 kala svikrit kiya tha. ayan bindu ki yahi gati sakshya hai ki aj se lagabhag 436 varsh pashchat arthat 2443 i. ke aspas aynansh ka man 30 ansh (arthat ek rashi) ho jaega. tab sayan mesh rashi nirayan min tatha purva bhadrapad ke tritiya v chaturth charan ke sandhi bindu se aranbh hogi. uparyukt vivechan se spasht ho jata hai ki chitra nakshatra ke madhya bindu (180 ansh) par sharad sanpat tatha isse 180 ansh sthit revatyant bindu par vasant sanpat ki adarsh sthiti hai, kintu vastav men aisa hai nahin. prithvi ki dhuri ke jhukav men hone vale ayn-chayan ke falasvarup ye donon sanpat bindu bhi vastav men apni adarsh sthiti se hatte ja rahe hain. achal (adarsha) sanpat binduon se nakshatra ya rashi vistar ke praranbh ko manne vali paddhati nirayan tatha khiske hue (vichlit) sanpat bindu se nakshatra ya rashi vistar ka aranbh manne vali paddhati hi sayan paddhati kahlati hai. prayah dekha gaya hai ki sayan aur nirayan paddhatiyon se banai gai ek hi jatak ki janmapatriyon ki grahavastha men lagabhag 80 pratishat tak ki vishmrupta pai jati hai. sath hi grah bhavadi ke navanshak bhi sarvatha mel nahin khate, kintu donon paddhatiyon ke anuyayi daivagya apni-apni paddh tiyon ko shuddh evan pramanik siddh karne men tatpar dikhai parte hain. nirayan paddhati ka prayog keval bharat, nepal tatha lanka adi tin-char deshon men hi prachlit hai jabki vishva ke anya shesh bhagon men sayan paddhati ka prayog chalan men hai. sayan paddhati men visangti: khiska hua vasant sanpat bindu, jise sayan paddhati ke jyortivid rashyanusar mesh ka aranbh bindu mante hain, vastav men ashvini nakshatra ka aranbh bindu nahin hai. yah bindu vastavik ashvini ke pratham bindu se vartaman men lagabhag 23 ansh 56 kala piche arthat 336 ansh 04 kala ke nikat min rashisth uttara bhadrapad ke pratham charan men hai. is prakar dekhen to sayan paddhati men meshadi rashiyon ka ashvinyadi nakshatron se samanjasya bhang ho gaya hai. yahi karan hai ki pashchatya jyotirvid matra rashi vyavastha ke anuyayi hain jabki nirayan paddhati ke daivagya nakshatra vyavastha (aijamasasamat ailejmau) par adharit fal kathan ki vidha ka anusaran karte hain. sayan ganna men mesharanbh bindu vichalan ka parinam yah hua ki vah mesharanbh bindu, jo aj se lagabhag 1500 varsh purva revatyant tare par tha, ab krantivriÿa par lagabhag 24 ansh pashchim men hat gaya hai. tadnusar hi mesharanbh bindu ke sath-sath anya rashiyon ke aranbh bindu bhi 24-24 ansh pashchim men hat gae hain tatha yah prakriya abhi bhi nirantar jari hai. falasvarup sayan meshadi rashiyon ka unke vishisht tara mandlon ke vistar se samanjasya purnatah bhang ho gaya hai, jinki vishisht rachna akriti ke adhar par rashiyon ka mesh, vrishadi namakaran nirdharit kiya gaya tha, yahi is paddhati ki pramukh visangti siddh hoti hai. nirayan paddhati ki visangti: isa se kai shatabdiyon purva taramandlon ka unki akriti-prakriti ke anusar namakaran nirdharit kiya gaya tha. tatpashchat shatabdiyon paryant krantivriÿa par meshadi rashiyon ki simaen inke apne-apne taramandlon ke asman vistar ke adhar par alg-alag man ki mani jati rahin. iske antargat vibhinn rashiyon ko kahin 20 ansh, kahin 15, kahin 30 to kahin 40 ansh ka mana jata raha. parinamasvarup us samay meshadi vibhinn rashiyan visham vibhagatmak rahin. aisi vyavastha men us samay grah char ka nirdharan kiya jata tha. tatkalin daivagya jatak ki akriti-prakriti ka nirnay bhi unke taramandlon se banne vali kalpanik akriti vale meshadi praniyon ki akriti-prakriti ke sadrishya par hi ghoshit karte the. aj tak nirayan falit jyotish men isi sadrishya ka prayog chalan men hai. rashiyon ka yah visham vibhagatmak prayog shatabdiyon paryant yathavat raha. pashchat nakshatravidon ne rashiyon ke asman vistar ko grahon ki gati-sthiti men asuvidhajanak janakar inhen barabar arthat 30-30 anshon men vibhajit kiya. rashiyon ki vistar simaon ka yah samanatmak nirdharan yadyapi isa se purva kiya ja chuka tha, kintu mesh rashi ke aranbh bindu ka yatharthata se nirdharan isa bad ki chaithi sadi men kiya gaya. us samay mesharanbh tatkalin adarsh vasant sanpat ko mana gaya jo us samay min taramandal ke ek tare (sm.chapebnau) par tha, jise aj revatyant bindu kaha jata hai. aise saman vibhagatmak vibhajan ke karan mesh ke aranbh bindu (revatyant) se pratyek 30-30 ansh ke antar par krantivriÿa men vrishadi anya rashiyon ki simaon ke aranbh bindu bhi nirdharit ho gae. gyatavya hai ki aise vibhajan ke falasvarup kuch rashiyon ke taramandlon ke kuch tare to unki sima men hi rahe jabki kuch tare sva rashiyon ki vistar sima se purvavarti athva uÿaravarti rashiyon ki vistar sima men chale gae kyonki rashiyon tatha nakshatron ka anshatmak vistar saman nahin tha. yahi nirayan paddhati ki pramukh doshpurn visangti hai. santoshajanak bat yah rahi ki aisa hone par bhi in rashiyon ke taramandlon ke adhikansh pramukh bhag inki apni-apni 30 anshon vali vistar sima se purnatah vichlit nahin ho sake atah saman vibhagatmak rashiyan apne taramandlon se alag nahin ho payin. vastav men vaidik se mahabharat kal tak bhartiya jyotish men rashiyon ko koi sthan nahin diya gaya tha, keval janm nakshatra athva nakshatron ke adhar par bhavishya kathan kiya jata tha jaise (1) ram vanvas se pahle dasharath ka kathan tha ‘angarak mere nakshatra ko pirit kar raha hai’. (2) mahabharat kal men krishn ne jab karn se bhent ki tab karn ke kathnanusar grah sthiti ka varnan is prakar kiya gaya- shani rohini nakshatra se mangal ko pirit kar raha hai. mangal jyeshtha nakshatra men vakri hokar anuradha nakshatra se yuti kar raha hai. is prakar ke kai udaharan jyotish granthon men prapt ho sakte hain jinmen keval nakshatron ko dhyan men rakh kar fal kathan kiya jata tha. nakshatra vargikaran nirayan paddhati men hi hai. kai jyotishiya tathya hain jo prithvi ke 23) jhukav ke ayan chalan ke karan prabhavit hote hain. surya dakshinayan v uÿarayan apni nakshatriya parivartan ke falasvarup hota hai. bhartiya jyotishanusar ashvini ke pratham bindu (0vm) ko vasant sanpat v chitra ke madhya bindu (180vm) ko sharad sanpat kahte hain. atah ek vasant sanpat se prithvi surya ki parikrama karte hue jab punah usi par ati hai, to ek varsh pura mana jata hai. parantu sanpat ke pichrne ke karan prithvi kuch samay pahle hi punah vasant sanpat par pahunch jati he. is prakar varsh ke do man ho jate hain. ashvini ke pratham bindu (0vm) se punah isi bindu par bhraman aoprant ane men prithvi ko samay lagta hai yah dvitiya prakar ka varsh man hai. 360vm ka bhraman sarvamanya hai, sanpat 50.28’’ khisak raha hai. is prakar ganna karen to prithvi 360-50.28=359 ansh 59 kala 9 vikla hi chali. is prakar prithvi ka paribhraman kal 365 din 5 ghante, 48 minat, 45 sekaned arthat ek varsh hua. ismen chal sanpat ki kalpana ki gai hai. is varsh ko ayan ya sayan varsh kahte hain parantu ek vansat sanpat se punah usi mul sthan par achal sanpat ki kalpana kar jo samay prithvi ko pahunchne men laga vah 365 din, 6 ghante, 9 minat, 10 sekend hai. ise nakshatra varsh ya nirayan varsh kaha jata hai. is prakar sayan varsh se nirayan men 20 minat, 24.58 sekend adhik hote hain. is prakar sayan paddhati ke anusar makar sankranti (surya ki dainik gati v aynansh ke adhar par) 22-23 disanbar ko v nirayan paddhati ke anusar 24 din bad 14 janvri ko mani jati hai. anya sankrantiyan bhi (surya) sayan paddhati ke anusar 21,22 tarikhon ke aspas ho sakti hain, jo khiske hue sanpaton par adharit hai. parantu bhartiya jyotish ke anusar nirayan paddhati achal sanpat par adharit hai. bhartiya nakshatra evan rashi paddhati (niryn) adhik vaigyanik v tarkasangat hai kyonki is paddhati ke anusar prithvi surya ki puri parikrama 360 ansh par karti hai. nirayan paddhati ke anusar yah bhi kaha ja sakta hai ki surya 365 din, 6 ghante, 9 minat v 9.76 sekend men 27 nakshatron ko par karta hai. is adhar par kaha ja sakta hai ki surya nakshatra ke ek charan ko 3( se 3) din men par kar leta hai. yah spasht hai ki vaigyanik tathyon v jyotish shastra men satikta hetu nirayan paddhati hi shreshth hai. sayan paddhati men rashiyon ko pramukhta di jati hai, nakshatron ka vishesh dhyan nahin rakha jata. parantu jaisa ki purva men kaha gaya hai, nakshatron ka prabhav vyakti vishesh par parta hai. grahon ke nakshatra pravesh ke karan ghatnaen prithvi par ghatit hoti hain, rituen parivartit hoti hain, shastra varnit nakshatron ko akash men spasht dekha ja sakta hai. vaidik v mahabharat kal men keval nakshatra hi jyotish ke adhar the. rashiyon ki avdharan aa pashchatya jagat ki den hai. fir bhi bhartiya jyotish shastriyon ne bari sujh-bujh se rashiyon ka samayojan jyotish shastra men kiya. unhonne rashiyan bhi sammilit kar lin aur nirayan paddhati bhi nahin chori. bhartiya jyotirvidon ne rashiyon ki ganna pratham nakshatra ashvini ke pratham bindu (niryn) se praranbh ki n ki mesh ke pratham bindu (sayn) se. sayan paddhati men chandra nakshatra ka koi mahatva nahin hai. parantu nirayan paddhati men kuch kuyog chandra ke nakshatra pravesh ke karan ghatit hue sarvamanya hain jaise ‘panchak kal’. jab chandra dhanishtha ke tritiya charan men pravesh karta hai, to ‘panchak kal’ ka praranbh mana jata hai v chandra ke revti se ashvini men pravesh ka samay panchak ka samapti kal mana jata hai. is prakar in 4) nakshatron (dhanishtha pp v ppp charan () nakshatra), shatbhisha, purva bhadrapad, uÿara bhadrapad v revti nakshatra 18 charan kunbh v min rashiyon men parte hain. atah kanubh v min rashiyon men chandra bhraman ‘panchak kal’ kahlata hai. isi prakar janm nakshatra ka nirdharan bhi chandra rashyansh ke anusar hi kiya jata hai. gandmul ityadi yog chandra ki sthiti ke anusar hi ghatit hote hain. ashvini, ashlesha, magha, mul, jyeshtha v revti gandmul nakshatron ki shreni men ate hain. vaivahik sanbandhon ki melapak sarni men bhi janm nakshatra (chandra nakshatra) ka vishesh mahatva hai jinka satik varnan nirayan paddhati dvara hi sanbhav hai. nakshatra paddhati (nirayan a) hi adhik vaigyanik v tarkasangat hai, atah jyotish men nirayan paddhati ka prayog karna hi uchit hai. sayan v nirayan paddhati men nakshatriya ekrupta nahin hai, jabki yah sarvavidit hai ki yadi rashiyon ke sath-sath nakshatron ka dhyan bhi rakha jae to fal kathan men satikta adhik a sakti hai. is kshetra ke vidvanon ne bharasak prayas karke yah nishkarsh nikala hai ki nirayan paddhati men rashiyan ashvini nakshatra ke pratham bindu 0 ansh se praranbh hokar 30-30 ansh par praranbh v samapt hoti hain, parantu sayan rashiyan 24 ansh pahle praranbh hokar 24 ansh pahle hi samapt ho jati hain. sayan rashiyon ka vistar bhi 30 ansh hi hai, parantu 24 ansh pahle praranbh ho jane ke karan nakshatra badal gae hain. jahan nirayan mesh rashi men ashvini, bharni v kriÿiaka p charan vidyaman hai vahin sayan mesh rashi men uttara bhadrapad pp ppp pt, revti, ashvini p pp charan ate hain. atah aynansh barhne ke sath-sath sayan rashiyon ke vistar kshetra men parivartan ki sanbhavnaen prabal hain jabki nirayan rashiyon ki nakshatra vyavastha aprivartit rahegi. shayad isi karan pashchatya jyotirvid nakshatra vyavastha ko nahin mante. parantu prachin kal se hi bhartiya jyotish men nakshatron ka vishesh dhyan rakha gaya hai. jyotish shastron ke adhyayan se yah spasht hota hai ki shubharanbh yog, murhut ityadi nakshatron par adharit hain. atah nirayan paddhati hi bhartiya jyotish ke anurup hai. nirayan = sayan - aynansh sayan = nirayan $ aynansh jyotishiya gannaon ke lie grahon ke nirayan v sayan rashyanshon ko paraspar parivartit karne ki avashyakta hoti hai. atah shastrakaron/vidvanon ka paramarsh hai ki nirayan v sayan rashiyon ka uparyukt sanbandh ka gyan jyotirvid ko avashya hona chahie. jahan tak jyotish men kisi paddhati ke prayog ka saval hai, anek vidvan ek mat hain ki nirayan paddhati ka prayog hi bhartiya jyotish men karna chahie. kshetra ke parangat vidvanon ka mat hai ki pratyek grah janm nakshatra se ginne par kuch nakshatron men shubh fal dete hain. to kuch men ashubh. nimnalikhit kai aisi vidhaen hain jo is shubhashubh fal ko ankne men prayog men lai jati hain. janm nakshatra se shubhashubh tare men grah gochar ki sthiti ke anusar. janm nakshatra se grah ke ang-bhraman ke anusar. surya sankranti ke adhar par nakshatranusar purolta evan prishthalata ke anusar. nakshatra vedh ke anusar. krishnamurti paddhati aur gochar. nakshatra paddhati jyotish jagat ko bharat ki anuthi den hai. rashiyon ka samayojan bhartiya jyotish men nahin tha. isa ki praran¬ibhak shatabdiyon men rashiyan bebilon, yunan v khaldiya se bharat men ain jinmen nakshatron ki pramukhta nahin thi. bhartiya jyotirvidon ne bari hi sujh-bujh se rashiyon ka samayojan nakshatra jyotish men kiya
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