प्राचीन भारतीय ग्रंथों के अनुसार व्रत के नियम-विधान एवं महत्व

prachin bhartiya granthon ke anusar vrat ke niyam-vidhan evan mahatva  

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prachin bhartiya granthon ke anusar vrat ke niyam-vidhan evan mahatva da. rajesh ji upadhyay ‘narmadey’ yadi dekha jae to sabhi dharmon men sankalpon evan vraton ki vyavastha hai. jaimini ne vrat ko ek manas kriya bataya hai, jo pratigya ke rup men hoti hai. agni puran ne vyavastha di hai ki shastra dvara ghoshit niyam hi vrat hai..... ‘‘vratan hi kartrisantapatay ityabhidhiyate indriya gram niyamannaiyakshabhidhiyate’’ vastutah vrat, parva, utsav adi prabhu ki samipta prapt karne ke sadhan hain. log samy-samay par aise anushthan adi karte hain, jinse sabal atmavishvas evan disha prapt hoti hai. vrat shabd ki utpaÿia vri (vriÿa varne arthat varan karna ya chunna) se mani gai hai, jiska arth hai- ‘sankalp, adesh, vidhi, nirdisht, vyavastha, vashta, agyakarita, seva, svamitva, vyavastha, nirdharit uÿaradhikar, vriÿia, acharik karm, pravriÿia men sanlagnata riti, dharmik karya, upasna, kartavya, anushthan, dharmik tapasya, uÿam karya adi. vrit se hi vrat ki utpaÿia mani gai hai. rigved men ‘vrit’ shabd ka prayog is prakar hua hai- ‘sarvarbhanoradh yadindra maya avo divo vartamana avahan. rathan vamnugaysan y dusha vartate sah. n chakrambhi badhte nicha vartant upri sfurantyahastaso hastavante sahante.’ bhaktajanon ki manyata hai ki devane ne kuch anushasan athva adesh nirdharit kie hain, jinka ve svayan tatha anya jivagan anusaran karte hain. isse vidhi-vidhan ya kanun ka bhav spasht ho jata hai. jab log aisa vishvas karte hain ya anubhav karte hain ki unhen kuch karm devon dvara nirdharit samajhakar karne chahie, tab ve upasna karte hanai jisse punit sankalp ya dharmik achar evan kartavya ke bhav ki srishti hoti hai. isilie log devon ke anugrah ki prapti ke lie apne acharan ya bhojan ko niyantrit karke upvas karte hanai. vrat ko daivi adesh ya acharan sanbandhi naitik vidhiyon ke arth mane liya gaya hai. rigved men kaha gaya hai ki ‘indra ke sahayak mitra vishnu ke karmon ko dekho jinke dvara vah apne vraton arthat adeshon ki raksha karta hai- ‘vishnoah karmani pashyat yato vratani paspashe indrasya yujyah sakha..’ yah udaharan atharvaved aur vajsneyi sanhita men bhi aya hai- vratmupaishyan bruyadagne vratpte vratan charishyamiti.. shatapath brahman men kaha gaya hai- ‘‘vraten tvan vratpte samakto vishvaha sumna didihih.’’ vaidik sanhitaon men kahin-kahin vrat ko kisi dharmik kritya ya sankalp sanlagn vyakti ke lie vyavasthit kiya gaya hai. brahman upnishdon men bahudha adhik sthalon par vrat ka do arthon men prayog hua hai- ek dharmik kritya ya sankalp tatha acharan evan bhojan sanbandhi rok ke sandarbh men aur dusra upvas karte samay bhakshya abhakshya bhojan ke sandarbh men. prachin kal men logon men ek manyata thi ki devtagan vaise kisi vyakti ki havi nahin grahan karte jo vrat ka palan nahi karta hai. atah vah upvas karta hai taki devtagan prasann rahen aur uske yagya karm men bhag len. yadi dekha jae to sabhi dharmon men sankalpon evan vraton ki vyavastha hai. jaimini ne vrat ko ek manas kriya bataya hai, jo pratigya ke rup men hoti hai. agni puran ne vyavastha di hai ki shastra dvara ghoshit niyam hi vrat hai. isi ko tap bhi kaha gaya hai, kyonki ismen kathinai sahte hue niyam ka palan karna parta hai. shastroditi hi niyamo vratan tachch tapo matam/niyamastu visheshastu vratasyaiv damadyah/vratan hi kartrisantapaÿam ityabhidhiyate/ indriyagaram nimanniyashchabhidhiyate. amrkosh ke anusar, niyam evan vrat ek hain. vrat men upvas adi hote hain jo punya utpann karte hain. shridÿa ne ‘samayapradip’ men likha hai ki vrat ek nirdisht sankalp hai jo kisi vishay se sanbandhit hai jismen kartavya ke sath apne ko bandhte hain- ‘svakarmavishyo niyatah sankalpovratam.’ dharmasindhu ne vrat ko puja adi se sanbandhit dharmik kritya mana hai. agnipuran men kaha gaya hai ki vrat karne valon ko pratidin snan karna chahie, simit matra men bhojan karna chahie aur devon ka samman karna chahie. ismen hom evan puja men antar mana gaya hai. vishnu dharmoÿar puran men vyavastha hai ki jo vrat-upvas karta hai, use ishtadev ke mantron ka maun jap karna chahie, unka dhyan karna chahie, unki kathaen sunni chahie aur unki puja karni chahie. ismen hom, yog evan dan ke mahatva ko samjhaya gaya hai. vraton men kam prayas pata- shri krishn sadan, shri jagdanba darbar rajendra mitra mandir ke piche, shahdol (m. pra.)-484001 se adhik falon ki prapti hoti hai. vraton men isi lok men rahte hue punya fal prapt ho jate hain. vrat koi bhi kar sakta hai. bharatavarsh men isa purva evan pashchat vraton ki vyavastha prachlit thi. kuch vrat brahmachariyon ke lie aur kuch snatkon ke lie nishchit the. kalidas vanamay, mrichchakatik, ratnavli adi men iska ullekh hai. raja bhoj ke rajmartand men 24 vraton ka ullekh hai. hemadri men 700 vraton ke nam batae gae hain. gopinath kaviraj ne 1622 vraton ka ullekh apne vratkosh men kiya hai. kintu ashauch avastha men vrat nahin karna chahie. jiski sharirik sthiti thik n ho, vrat karne se uÿojna barhe aur vrat rakhne par vrat bhang hone ki sanbhavna ho use vrat nahin karna chahie. vrati men vrat karte samay nimnokt 10 gunon ka hona avashyak hai- kshama, satya, daya, dan, shauch, indriyanigrah, devpuja, agnihavan, santosh evan astey. deval ke anusar brahmacharya, shauch, satya evan amishamardan namak char gun hone chahie. vrat ke din madhur vani ka prayog karna chahie. patit, pakhandi tatha nastikon se dur rahna chahie aur asatya bhashan nahin karna chahie. use satvik jivan ka palan aur prabhu ka smaran karna chahie. sath hi kalyankari bhavna ka palan karna chahie.
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vrat katha visheshank  November 2008

somvar se shanivar tak kiye jane vale vrat kathaen evan unka mahatva, vrat evan katha karne ki pujan vidhi evan disha nirdesh, ahoi ashtami, karva chauth, holi adi jaise varsh bhar men hone vale sabhi vishesh vrat kathaen aur unka mahatva, vrat evan kathaon ke karne se milne vale labh

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