कर्म का धर्म

karm ka dharm  

Alok Tripathi
Views : 2546 | August 2016

yadi ham apne as-pas dekhen to pratipal pratyek vyakti, pashu-pakshie v jiv-jantu ko koi n koi karya karte hue athva usko karne ki yojna banate huye dekhte hain. vastav men ye sabhi prakriyaen karm kahlati hain jo sharirik, vachik v mansik tinon prakar se hoti hain. dhyanpurvak dekhne se gyat hota hai ki pratikshan jiv nirantar kisi n kisi karm ko karne men vyast hai ya yun kahen ki badhya hai. shrikrishn svayan bhi shrimadbhagavadgita ke tritiya adhyay ke prarambh men hi karm ke is mahatvapurn siddhant ka rahasyodghatan karte hain ‘‘n hi kashchit kshanan api jatu tishthatyakarmakrit’’, falasvarup ham nirantar kisi n kisi karm ke lie badhya hote hain. to ab prashn uthta hai ki ham manushyon v anya jiv-jantuon ke dvara kie gaye karmon men kya antar hai? vaidik shastra kahta hai - ‘‘ahar nidra bhay maithunan ch samanam etad pashubhir naranam’’. sharir nirvah hetu kie gaye karm to pashu v jiv jantu bhi karte hanai to ham manushyon ko kis prakar ke karm karne chahie jo manushya ko uski shreshth sthiti men bane rahne ke lie sahayak ho? yahan is prashn ka uttar prapt hota hai- ‘‘dharmo hi teshan adhiko vishesho, dharmenhinaah pashubhiah samanaah.’’

keval dharmayukt hokar kie gaye karm manushya ko uski shreshth sthiti men bane rahne men sahayak hote hain. aiye vaidik shastron men varnit is ‘dharmayukt karma’ ke ashay ko samjhne ka prayatn karte hain. shrimadbhagavadgita men shrikrishn karmon ki pranali ko vistar se samjhate hain ye mukhyatah tin bhagon men vibhajit hain karm, vikarm tatha akarm. ‘‘karmano hyapi boddhavyan boddhavyan ch vikarmanah. akarmanashch boddhavyan gahna karmano gatiah.. (bhagavadgita 4.17)’’ ‘karma’- sharir ke sanrakshan hetu avashyaktaon ki purti ke lie jab koi manushya shastron men varnit vidhi ka palan karte hue karm karta hain use ‘karma’ ya ‘niyat karma’ bhi kahte hain. vikarma- indriyatripti hetu kie gaye aise prayatn athva karya jismen manushya shastron men varnit niyamon v vidhiyon ki avhelna karta hai ‘kamsankalp sanhita’’ jinhen ham ‘kamya karma’ bhi kahte hain. inmen indriyabhog v indriyatripti ki bhavna pradhan hoti hai jise purn karne ki lalsa men manushya apradh karne men bhi nahin jhijhkta. jabki ‘karma’ men avashyakta ki pradhanta hoti hai tatha shreshth niyamon v adhikarik sanstuti ka adhik mahatva hota hai.

‘‘niyatan kuru karm tvan karm jyayo hyakarmanah. shariryatrapi ch te n prasiddhyedakarmanah’’.. (bhagavadgita 3.8). udaharan svarup maharaj yudhishthir ka anya rajyon ki praja ke kalyan hetu rajsuya yagya kar rajya ka vistar karna niyat karm kahlaya jo ‘karma’ ki shreni men ate hain. vahin duryodhan ki rajyabhog ki lalsa se prerit dyutakrira karke pandvon ke rajya ki prapti ka prayas ‘kamya karma’ kahlaye jo ‘vikarma’ ki shreni men ate hain. in donon karm v vikarm ke atirikt ek anya karmavidhi bhi hai jise shrikrishn sarvottam karmavidhi ke rup men nirupit karte hain vo hai ‘akarma’. jahan karm evan vikarm jiv ko duahkh-sukh ke karmachakra se bandhe rakhte hain vahin jab manushya svayan ke indriya-bhog v sva-anand ki vasna ko tyag kar shrikrishn ke ashrit hokar unki prasannata hetu karm karta hai tab vah karm ‘akarma’ kahlata hai.

yah jiv ko karmabandhan se to mukt karta hi hai sath hi param nitya muktavastha ko bhi pradan karata hai, jiski sanstuti shrikrishn yahan karte hain- ‘yagyarthatkarmano anyatra loko'yan karmabandhanah. tadarthan karm kauntey muktasangah samachar.’’ (bhagavadgita 3.9) yahi nahin aise karm karne vale ko shrikrishn atyant buddhiman v samast shanti prapti ka adhikari mante hain. ab yahan dhyan dene yogya tathya yah hai ki yadi koi manushya apne niyat karmon ko bhi param srishta shrikrishn ke seva svarup hi karta hai to bhi vo karm bandhan se mukt hokar divya avastha ko prapt karta hai- ‘‘karmanyakarm yah pashyet karmani ch karm yah. s buddhiman manushyeshu s yuktah kritsnakarmakrit.. (bhagavadgita 4.18) mahabharat ke yuddh men arjun dvara apne svajnon se yuddh karna ‘akarma’ kahlaya kyonki ye karya bhagvan shrikrishn ki dharm ki sthapna ki ichcha se prerit tha jabki arjun purva men is karm ka abhilashi nahin tha. vastav men ye shreshth karm koi vishesh prakar ka karm athva karmon ki vriddhi nahin hai varan karta ki chetna arthat uski us karm ke prati bhavna hai jo karm karne se purva v karm sampann karte samay hoti hai jismen karmafal ke uddeshya, karmafal se asakti, karmafal par adhikar ki sthiti karm ki shreshthata men kami athva vriddhi nirdharit hoti hai.

tam gun, raj gun v satva gun men kramanusar jo vyakti jis prakar sthit hota hai usi kram men uske karmon ka chayan v karya karne ki chetna prabhavit hoti hai, kyonki ‘‘jo jitne nichle gun men sthit hota hai usmen utne hi daiviya gunon ke abhav ke karan gyan ke anushilan ki kshamata kshin hoti jati hai’’- ‘‘moghasha mogh karmano moghagyana vichetsah. rakshasimasurin chaiv prakritin mohinin shritaah..’’ (bhagavadgita 9.12) yahan shrimadbhagavat ke navam skandh ke chaturth adhyay men varnit maharshi durvasa evan maharaja ambarish ka vrittant uddhrit hota hai jismen krodh prerit rishi durvasa ka satvaguni maha-tapasvi bhakt maharaja ambarish ko diya gaya dand unhin ke lie abhishap ban gaya. ikshvaku vansh ke mahan vishnu bhakt maharaja ambarish ne vishnu ki prasannata hetu atyant kathin nirjal vrat ka anushthan kiya jiske samapan hetu anekon brahyanon v rishiyon ko amantrit kiya gaya. unhen bhojan kara kar ant men prasad grahan karne ke samay achanak rishi durvasa prakat ho gaye. maharaja ambarish ne unhen bhojan grahan karne ka anugrah kiya parantu ve snan ko chale tatha vapas akar bhojan grahan karne ko kaha.

maharaja ambarish ko nirdharit samyavdhi men anushthan ko purn kar prasad grahan karna tha parantu durvasa vapas nahin laute to sabha men upasthit anya rishiyon ke anugrah par maharaja ambarish ne anushthan ki aupcharikta purn karne hetu jal ki kuch bundon ko grahan karke anushthan purn kiya aur durvasa rishi ki pratiksha karne lage. usi samay kruddh durvasa vahan prakat hue v unki anupasthiti men maharaja ambarish dvara anushthan purn karne ka dand dene ke lie daitya prakat kar diya tatha raja ko marne ka adesh de diya, parantu maharaja ambarish ki nishtha v daiviya gunon se yukt kiye gaye ‘akarma’ se prasann hokar vishnu ke astra sudarshan vahin prakat ho gaye jinke prakat hone matra se hi daitya vahin bhasm ho gaya tatpashchat sudarshan rishi durvasa ki or barhne lage aur bhaybhit durvasa bhagne lage. ve bachne ke lie tinon lokon men bhage parantu sudarshan ne unka picha nahin chora. samast devon se durvasa ne raksha ki vinti ki parantu sabhi asamarth rahe. ant men rishi dvara maharaja ambarish se raksha vinti karne par durvasa ki raksha hui. yahan ant men vishnu bhakt maharaj ambarish dvara rishi durvasa ko mrityu-bhay se mukt karana daiviya gun prabhavit ‘akarma’ pradarshit karta hai.

vahin rishi durvasa ka dand dena tam gun prabhavit nikrisht karm ki sanstuti karata hai. atah shrikrishn hamen nitya shreshth v bandhan mukt karmon ki prerna dete hain tatha hamen sadaiv satvagun men hi sthit rahne ki salah dete hain-‘‘nidrvandvo nitya satvastho niryog kshem atmavan’’. jo vyakti aisi shreshth sthiti ko prapt kar leta hai evan unapar purn vishvas rakhte hue unhen hi sarvochch ashraydata v hitaishi man kar karm karta hai to shrikrishn svayan uski suraksha v pratyek avashyakta purn karne ka vachan de dete hain- ananyashchintayanto man ye janaah paryupaste. teshan nityabhiyuktanan yogaksheman vahamyaham.. (bhagavadgita 9.22) tatpashchat vo paramapad arthat aisi avastha men rahta hai jismen vo duahkh ke bhay v sukh ke moh se aprabhavit rahakar nitya shanti ko dharan kar leta hai. atah param bhagvan ka purn ashray hamare samast karmon ko vikar athva dosh mukt kar deta hai tatha parm-nitya anand, sukh v shanti pradan karta hai.

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