षोडश संस्कारों में की जाने वाली क्रियाएं

shodash sanskaron men ki jane vali kriyaen  

Ank ke aur Lekh | Sambandhit Lekh | Views : 1752 |  
sanatan athva hindu dharm ki sanskriti sanskaron par hi adharit hai. hamare rishi-muniyon ne manav jivan ko pavitra evan maryadit banane ke liye sanskaron ka avishkar kiya. dharmik hi nahin vaigyanik drishti se bhi in sanskaron ka hamare jivan men vishesh mahatva hai. bhartiya sanskriti ki mahanta men in sanskaron ka mahti yogdan hai. prachin kal men hamara pratyek karya sanskar se arambh hota tha. us samay sanskaron ki sankhya bhi lagabhag chalis thi. jaise-jaise samay badlta gaya tatha vyastata barhti gai to kuch sanskar svatah vilupt ho gaye. is prakar samyanusar sanshodhit hokar sanskaron ki sankhya nirdharit hoti gai. gautm smriti men chalis prakar ke sanskaron ka ullekh hai. 1. garbhadhan sanskar garbhadhan sanskar hamen sachet karta hai ki kisi bhi jatak ka man ke garbha men ana ek akasmik ghatna nahin apitu purva niyojit prakriya hai jisse suyogya santan prapt ki ja sake. garbhadhan ka samay ritusrav hone se 4 se 16 ratriyan hoti hain. shubh ratriyan 8vin, 9vin, 10vin, 12vin, 15vin tatha 16vin ratri hai. ichchit santan ki prapti hetu garbhadhan se purva pati-patni ko apne man-tan ko pavitra banana chahie. shuddh raj-virya ke sanyog se hi sanskarvan santan ka janm hota hai. pativrat dharm aur brahmacharya paln se hi raj-virya ki shuddhi hoti hai. jis shubh ratri men jis samy garbhadhan karna ho to us samy pati-patni svayan ko achaman adi se shuddh kar lena chahie. fir pati hath men jal lekar yah kahe ki main is patni ke pratham garbhadhan sanskar ke bij tatha garbh sanbandhi doshon ke nivarnarth is garbhadhan sanskar kriya ko karta hun. patni pashchim ki or pair karke sidhe chitt lete tatha pati purvabhimukh baithakar patni ke nabhi sthal ko apne dayen hath se sparsh karta hua nimn mantra ka uchcharan kare: ‘‘un pusha bhag savita men dadatu rudrah kalpatu lalamgum. un vishnubhaunikalpamatu tvashya rupani yithshtu sachinsatt prajaptirbhanan garbha dadhalute..’’ 2. punsavan sanskar garbh ka vikas samyak prakar se ho, iske liye punsavan sanskar, garbhadhan sanskar ke tisre mahine men kiya jata hai. is sanskar ki mukhya kriya men khir ki panch ahutiyan di jati hain. havan se bachi hui khir ko ek patra men bharakar pati, patni ki god men rakhta hai aur ek nariyal bhi pradan karta hai. puja samapti aur brahman bhojan ke pashchat patni is khir ka prem purvak sevan karti hai. 3. simantonnayan sanskar yah sanskar bhi garbhasth shishu ke unnayan ke liye kiya jata hai. yah sanskar shishu ko saubhagya sanpanna banata hai. yah sanskar garbh ke satven mahine men karna chahie. is sanskar ka uddeshya janm lene vale shishu ke svasthya tatha sharirik evan mansik vikas ke lie ishvar se prarthana karna hai. muhurt ke chayan men nimnankit vichar avashyak hain: is sanskar men havan kiya jata hai aur garbhavati stri ke jude (sir ke balon) men tin kushaen aur gular ke ful lagaye jate hain. is sanskar ke avasar par vina vadan ke sath somrag ka gan adi bhi hota hai, jo garbhavati stri ko prafullit karne ka, bhakti ka sanskar karne ka uttam sadhan hai. 4. jatakarm sanskar shishu ke janm lene par jo sanskar kiya jata hai use jatakarma sanskar kahte hain. iska mukhya ang ‘meghajnn’ sanskar hai. iske dvara mata-pita ke sharirik doshon ka shaman kiya jata hai. pita ya ghar ke anya bujurg vyakti dvara nal katne ke bad sone ki salai se shishu ko visham matra men shahad aur ghi chatana chahie. isi ke sath santanotpatti se purva ki sanskarik kriyaen purn ho jati hain. 5. namakaran sanskar yah sanskar charo varnon ka hota hai. nam keval ‘shabda’ hi nahin balki ek kalyanamay vichar bhi hai. isse jatak ka kalyan bhi hota hai. shishu ka namakaran do prakar se kiya jata hai: 1. janm nakshatra charan v rashi anusar nam jo guhya hota hai, isse kiya gaya namakaran shishu ke bhagya men char chand laga deta hai. 2. pukar ka nam, jise lok bhasha men bolta nam bhi kahte hain, pita, apne shishu ke kan men kahta (bolta) hai. pukar ka nam kevl vyavhar ke liye hota hai. jaisa ki upar bataya hai. namkrn sanskar charo varnon ka hota hai. stri evan shudra ka amantrak evan vijatiyon ka samantrak namkrn hota hai. brahman ka nam manglkari tatha sharmayukt, kshatriya ka bal tatha raksha samanvit, vaishya ka dhan pushti yukt tatha shudra ka daitya aur seva bhav yukt hota hai. striyon ke nam sukomal, manohari, manglkari tatha dirghavarnit hone chahie. jaise- yashoda. kuch rishiyon ne nakshatra nam ko mata-pita ki jankari men rahna uparyukt bataya hai arthat jise keval mata-pita hi jane anya koi nahin. vyavhar (bolna) nam hi prachalan men rahna chahie taki shatru ke avichar adi karmon se shishu ki raksha ki ja sake. atah mata-pita bhi use vyavhar nam se hi sanbodhit karen. jab uski shiksha skul se jure to uska vastavik nam dalna chahie taki bhagya barabr chalta rahe. 6 nakshatra- ashvin, magha, mul tatha ashlesha, jyeshtha v revti gandmul nakshatra hain. inmen se kisi mane bhi janma shishu mata-pita, apne kul ya apne sharir hetu kashtadayk hota hai. iske viprit yadi sankt samapt ho jae to apar dhan, vaibhv aishvarya, vahan adi ka svami hota hai. iske pita ko 27 din tak aise shishu ka mukh nahin dekhna chahie. mul shanti karane ke bad sanbandhit nakshatra ka dan, havan, puja adi karvakar 27 dinon bad hi mukh dekhen tatha namakaran sanskar karayane. isse sutka snan, ganpti ji, varun adi puja, navin vastra shishu hetu avashyak hain. fir shishu ke kan men ‘‘amuk sharmashi, amuk varmashi’’ ityadi nam tin bar sunaen adi kriyayane ismen ki jati hain. 6. nishkraman sanskar yah sanskar navjat shishu ko prathm bar ghar se bahar khule sthan (bag, bagicha, nadi) adi par le jane se sanbandhit hai. yah sanskar shishu ke janma ke 12ven din se lekar 4 mahine tak kabhi bhi kiya ja sakta hai. sarvapratham ghar se bahar pas ke kisi mandir men shishu ko le jana chahie tatha usi ratri men shukla paksh ke chandra darshan v ganeshji bal krishn bhagvan ke darshan karvane chahie. 7. annaprashan sanskar yah sanskar man ke dudh ke atirikta pahli bar thos ahar dete samy kiya jata hai. is sanskar ke dvara, mata ke garbh men malin, bhakshana-janm dosh jo balk men a jate hain, uska nash karne ke lie kiya jata hai. jab balak 6-7 mas ka hota hain tab yah sanskar kiya jata hai kyonki us samay shishu ke dant niklne lagte hain tatha palan kriya (shakti) prabal hone lagti hai. shubh muhurt men devtaon ka pujn karne ke bad mata-pita adi sone ya chandi ki salakha ya chammach se pushtikarak ann chatate hain. 8. churakarm sanskar churakaran sanskar janm ke vishm varshon men 1, 3, 5, 7 adi varshon men hona chahie. kuch parivaron men yah yagyaopvit sanskar ke sath bhi kiya jata hai. yah sanskar chail ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. jyeshth jatk ka churakaran saur jyeshth mas men nahin kiya jata. yadi mata 5 mas se adhik ki garbhavati ho to bhi yah sanskar nahin hota. bal katne hetu shishu/balak ko purva ki or mukh karke bithaya jata hai. bich men mang banakar dayen, bayen, aur piche ki or sir men balon ko bail ke gobar lapetakar rakhna chahie. kate hue balon ko gobr sahit ek naye vastra men rakhkr jamin men garna chahie ya parivar ki paranpranusar gangaji men pravahit karna chahie. 9. vidyaranbh sanskar ise akshararanbh sanskar bhi kahte hain. jab balak ka mastishk vidya/shiksha grahan karne yogya ho jata hai. tab use aksharon ka bodh karaya jata hai. yah sanskar 5ven varsh ya upnyn sanskar (11van sanskar) se purva karaya jata hai. iske lie shubh muhurt men balk ko snan karakar sugandhit dravyon v navin vastron se alankrit kar shri ganesh ji, sarasvati ji, lakshmi ji v kuldevi-devtaon ki puja ki jati hai. iske bad shikshak (guru) purva disha ki or baithakar patti par balak se ‘‘om svasti namah’’ siddhasya adi likhakar vidyaranbh karvaya jata hai. balak ki jibh par shahad se ‘ain’ bhi likha jata hai. 10. karn vedhan sanskar yah sanskar purn purushatva ya stritva ki prapti hetu kiya jata hai. shastron men karn vedhan rahit purush ko shastra ka adhikari nahin mana gaya hai. yah sanskar shishu ke janma se chah mas se 16 mas ke bich kiya jata hai. athva 3, 5, adi visham varshiya ayu men ya parivar ki paranpranusar karna chahie. yah sanskar dhup men karna chahie jisse surya ki kirnen kanon ke chidra se pravisht hokar balak - balika ko shuddh banati hai tatha tej sanpann bhi karti hai. brahman aur vaishya varn ka uprokt sanskar, kriya adi ki shlaka se v kshatriya ki sone ki shlaka se tatha shudra varn ki lauh shlaka se karne ka vidhan hai. ayurved (chikitsakiya) ke anusar karn vedhan se ek aisi nas, bindu ban jati hai, jisse antra vriddhi (harniya rog) nahin hoti hai. isse purushatva va stritva nasht karne vale rogon se raksha bhi hoti hai. 11. yagyaopvit sanskar ise yagyaopvit ya janeu sanskar bhi kahte hain. isse manav jivn ke vikas ka aranbh mana jata hai. is sanskar ki kriya karne se karorane janmon ke sanchit pap karm se mukti mil jati hai. lekin shudra varn ko iski manahi hai. anya varnon men brahmanon ko yah sanskar 8ven varsh men, kshatriya ko 11ven varsh men aur vaishya varn ko 12ven varsh men karana chahie. varsh ki ganna garbh ke samy se hi karna chahie. is sanskar ke samay vibhinn vaidik mantron ke sath gayatri mantra ka bhi purn uchcharn kiya jata hai. acharya (guru) balk ko gayatri mantra ki diksha bhi dete hanai. is sanskar kriya men balak ko bhiksha bharan bhi hona parta hai. is sanskar ke pashchat balak vaidik karm karne ka adhikari ho jata hai. parantu use vivah hone tak brahmacharya ke niyamon ka purnataya palan karna parta hai. yah ek kathor vrat kriya hai. sath hi acharya dvara diye gaye updeshon ka bhi drirhta se paln karna chahie tabhi use divyatva ki prapti hoti hai. 12. vedaranbh sanskar yah sanskar ved sikhna praranbh karne ke sath kiya jata hai. upnyn sanskar ke sath bhi yah sanskar kiya ja sakta hai. is sanskar ke bad usi din ya isse tin din bad yah sanskar kriya aranbh ki jati hai. maharshi vashishth ke anusar jin-jin kulon men bare shakhaon ka adhyayan paranpra se hota chala a raha ho, un kulon ke balkon ko usi shakha ka abhyas karna chahie. apne kul ki paranpragat shakha (upnishad adi) ka adhyayan karne ke pashchat anya shakhaon ka adhyayan karna chahie. vedadhyayan guru ke sannidhya men karna chahiye. ved ka arth sahit adhyayan karna chahie. is sanskar men ved mantra ki ahutiyon se yagya karne ka vidhan hai. 13. keshant sanskar yah sanskar godan sanskar bhi kahlata hai. yah churakarm ke saman hi hai. yah sanskar lagabhag 16 varsha ki umra ke aspas kiya jata hai. ismen kriya ke rup men darhi-munch banvayi jati hai. yah sanskar/ kriya churakaran jaisi hi hai. kate balon ko jal men pravahit kiya jata hai. 14. samavartana samavartan ka arth hai jatak ka vidya adhyayan purn karke guru ke ghar se apne ghar lautna. yah sanskar bhi keshant sanskar vidhi ke anurup kiya jata hai. yah sanskar vidyadhyayan ka antim sanskar hai. vidyadhyayan samapta ho jane ke bad anantar snatk brahmachari apne guru ki agya pakr apne ghar men samavartit hota hai, atah ise samapan sanskar kahte hain. grihasth jivan men pravesh ka adhikari ho jana is sanskar ka parinam hai. 15. vivah sanskar bina vivah jatak karm ke yogya nahin hota hai. is sanskar ke bad hi jatak grihasth jivan men pravesh karta hai. ise pavitra bandhan mana jata hai. var-vadhu agni ko sakshi manakar 7 fere lagate hain jo 7 vachnon v 7 janmon se jure hote hain. rigved men ‘jayedastama’ shabd ka prayog milta hai jiska arth hai ‘patni hi grih’ hai. gobhil grihasthasutra men patni ko hi ghar bataya gaya hai. shatapath brahmana men patni ko pati ki adrdhangini kaha gaya hai. vivah purva gun-milan va kundli milan kiya jata hai tatha vivah shubh muhurt men karvaya jata hai taki vaivahik jivan madhur v sukhi rahe. 16. antyeshti ya antim sanskar yah sanskar jatak ki mrityu ke pashchat kiya jata hai. hindu dharm men dah sanskar kiya jata hai taki sharir, panch tatvon men vilin ho tatha atma ko sadgati mile. uprokt 1 se 16 sanskaron ke alava kuch anya sanskarik kriyaen bhi ki jati hain, jo sanskaron ke antargat hi ati hain. ye kriyaen bhi sanskar ke hi bhag hain, jo mahatvapurn hain. anya sanskar dolarohan sanskar janm divas se 10, 12, 16, 22 evan 32 vane din shishu ko aramdeh jhule men sulana chahie. ismen shubh muhurta ka vichar jarur karna chahie. shishu ki mata, dadi-dada ko bhagvan shrihri ka dhyan karte hue shishu ko khule men sir purva ki or rakhakar sulana chahie. aisi kriya is sanskar men karne se shishu ki ayu v aishvarya men vriddhi hoti hai. bhumyopveshan sanskar yah sanskar panchvane mas men hota hai. shubh muhurt men prithvi aur varah ka pujan kar shishu ki kamar men sutra bandhakar prithvi par bithate hain aur prithvi se is prakar prarthana karte hain: ‘‘rajainan vasudhe devi ada sarvagtan shubhe. ayu pramanan saflan nikshipsv haripriye.. is avasar par vibhinn vastuen, pustak, kalam, mashin adi shishu ke samne rakhi jati hain. vah jis vastu ko sarvapratham uthata hai use hi uski ajivika ka sadhn manakar uske anusar hi use shiksha di jani chahie. vardhapan sanskar vardhapan sanskar pratyek varsh janma divas par kiya jata hai taki shishu dirghayu ho tatha sukhamay jivan bitaye. yah sanskar suryadipurn svasthya vardhak, ayuvishayak evan samriddhidayk hota hai. janmadivas par akhanddip prajjvalit kar janmotsav manana chahie. ismen til ka ubatan va jal se snan karna chahie. navin vastra, asan par baithakar tilk karna chahie. guru pujya pashchat akshat pushpon par sarvapratham kul devtabhyau namah mantra se kul devta ka ahvan v pujan karen. fir janmanakshatra, mata-pita, prajapti, surya, ganeshji, markandey, vyas, parshuram, ashvatthama, kripacharya, bali, prinad, hanuman, vibhishan evan shashthi devi ka akshat pujan kar nam mantra se ahvan karke unki puja karni chahie. tatpashchat markandeyji ko shvet til aur gud mishrit dudh tatha shashthi devi ji dahi bhat ka naivedya arpit karen. iske pashchat markedey ji se dirghayu tatha arogya hone ki prarthana karni chahie. is din nakh, kesh n katen, garm pani men snan na karen. apne se barane ka charan sparsh, abhivadan karen. ye sari kriyaen is sanskar men karni chahie. bhumi pujn: iski kriya ke antargata vastu dosh dur karne hetu vastu purush ki puja karni chahie. ninv khodte samay nag nagin jora dabana chahiye kyonki charane konon, charon dishaon men navnag rahte hain taki vastu dosh dur ho sake. pani ka kalash rakhna chahie taki shubh rahe kyonki kalash men sabhi devi-devtaon ka vas bataya gaya hai. vastu purush men 81 devon ki puja ho jati hai jo ki shubh rahta hai. grih pravesh: grih pravesh karte samy sarvapratham naya jhadu, naya matka rakhakar jal bhara jata hai. shauchaly men namak ko stil ke katore men bharakar rakhte hain taki nakaratmaka urja dur rahe. mukhya pravesh dvar par shubh chihn, ganesh ji andr-bahr donon taraf adi shubh sanket lagaye jate hain. naye ghar men rasoi men shuddh shakahari bhojan banana shubh rahta hai, adi kriyaen ki jati hai.
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vivah visheshank  November 2016

jyotishiya patrika fyuchar samachar ke is vivah visheshank men bahut achche vivah se sambandhit lekhon jaise vivah milan, prem vivah, vivah men badha v deri ka jyotishiya karan v nivaran, vivah ki tarikh ka nikalna, dasha aur vivah, ankshastra dvara vivah milan, vivah milan aur manglik dosh nivaran adi par paricharcha ki gai hai. anya mahatvapurn lekhon men amerika men ratrapti chunav, vatsaaip jyotish, bharat ke jaims baend ajit dobhal, osho ki kundali ka jyotishiya akalan, vastu men uttara-purva men ghara/plaet adi. iske atirik pratyek mah ka rashifal, vastu faelt, totke, vichar goshthi adi bhi patrika ka akarshan barha rahe hain.

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